The paper "Innovation and Knowledge Management - Nonaka and Polanyi " is a great example of management coursework. Innovation and knowledge management are essential in the performance of a business and attainment of sustainable competitive advantage (Goh, 2005, 59). Innovation inefficient technology enables businesses to conduct their operations with emphasizing environmental sustainability. Knowledge management is very important for organizational performance because of enhanced knowledge innovations (Goh, 2005, 59). Organisations have to compete with each other for their enhanced market position and to achieve this; they have to be innovative through their intelligent and knowledgeable employees.
Two fathers (gurus) of knowledge management (KM) Nonaka and Polanyi have contributed to the field of knowledge management (KM). Although there are may issue of innovation and knowledge management in organisations, Nonaka and Polanyi have great contributions on the same. Innovation and Knowledge Management: Knowledge management is a process that involves organizing, planning, motivating, and controlling employees, the system, and the process of organizational operation. According to Peters and Coles, (2006, 338), knowledge management entails doing what is required for an organization to obtain most out of the available knowledge resources, describe that organizations focus at improving knowledge-related assets and employing them effectively.
Leonard‐Barton, (1992, 116), argues that knowledge management is associated with protection, application capability, acquisition, and conversion. Companies require developing effective ways of managing their innovation capabilities in order to have sustainable existence and competitive advantage over their rivals (Peters and Coles, (2006, 338). Technological innovation is the coming up of new ways and products in a company’ s technological field. Contributions of Two fathers (gurus) of knowledge management (KM) Nonaka and Polanyi in the field of knowledge management (KM) Authors Year Topic Strengths Weaknesses Grant, Kenneth A 2007 Tacit knowledge revisited– we can still learn from Polanyi. The article is efficient n discussing Polanyi’ s good work in the field of knowledge management The article focuses much on Polanyi’ s work and a little about Nonaka. Xu, S. 2015 Balancing the Two Knowledge Dimensions in Innovation Efforts: An Empirical Examination among Pharmaceutical Firms. There is full coverage of the two Guru’ s contribution to Knowledge Management. The article only emphasizes on the issues associated with the Pharmaceutical Firms. Nonaka, Ikujiro, and Georg Von Krogh 2009 Perspective-tacit knowledge and knowledge conversion: Controversy and advancement in the organizational knowledge creation theory Very reliable and clear, as well as effective in studying Nonaka and Polanyi’ s theories in relation to the field of Knowledge Management. The article is very detailed to the level that is hard for a reader to understand all the information Ritala, P.
and Hurmelinna‐Laukkanen, P. 2013 Incremental and radical innovation in competition— The role of absorptive capacity and appropriability. The article clearly discusses how people innovate in knowledge as guided by Nonaka and Polanyi The article is not direct and this makes the reader struggle to understand the information Yeşil, S., Koska, A. and Bü yü kbeşe, T. 2013 Knowledge sharing process, innovation capability and innovation performance: an empirical study. The study was widely conducted, thus enhancing the paper’ s efficiency Though the paper highlights the contribution of Nonaka and Polanyi, it does not show how the two interact in their contributions. Purcarea, I., del Mar Benavides Espinosa, M.
and Apetrei, A. 2013 Innovation and knowledge creation: Perspectives on the SMEs sector It is possible for businessmen to learn widely from the article’ s content and the examples of Nonaka and Polanyi Only focuses on the SMEs sector; hence lacking general information An, X., Deng, H., Chao, L. and Bai, W., 2014 Knowledge management in supporting collaborative innovation community capacity building Properly organized and contains detailed information that can be comprehended by any reader There is no definition of the important terms in the article. Ashok, M., Ashok, M., Narula, R., Narula, R., Martinez-Noya, A.
and Martinez-Noya, A 2016 How do collaboration and investments in knowledge management affect process innovation in services? The authors’ arguments are organized logically, thus easy to follow There is minimal usage of charts and diagrams in the presentation of the piece’ s information Chua, A.Y. and Banerjee, S. 2013 Rethinking Michael Polanyi's realism: From personal knowledge to intersubjectively viable communication Polanyi’ s realism is effectively presented from the introduction to the conclusion It takes time for the reader to understand the authors’ intentions. Diamantini, C., Potena, D., Proietti, M., Smith, F., Storti, E.
and Taglino, F. 2013 A semantic framework for knowledge management in virtual innovation factories. The information in the article is well confined with clear organization of the major points Although the authors refer to many other resources, they do not identify those references in the article. Gubbins, C. and Dooley, L. 2014 Exploring social network dynamics driving knowledge management for innovation. The authors apply a logic sequence in the presentation of their ideas. The facts in the article are not verified. Hollen, R., Van Den Bosch, F.A.
and Volberda, H.W. 2013 The role of management innovation in enabling technological process innovation: An inter‐organizational perspective. It is easy to understand. The authors’ dig deep on the contributions made by Nonaka and Polanyi in the field of Knowledge Management There are important, but hard terms that are not explained to enhance understanding of the audience. Lee, V.H. , Leong, L.Y. , Hew, T.S. and Ooi, K.B. 2013 Knowledge management: a key determinant in advancing technological innovation? The article’ s content is direct and clear The information is efficiently presented and argued. The authors shallowly talk about socially acquired knowledge but focus on technology Mahr, D., Lievens, A.
and Blazevic, V. 2014 The value of customer co-created knowledge during the innovation process. The article contains general information, which makes the target audience to be wider It analyses an efficiently conducted study The applied illustrations are not clear. Obeidat, B.Y. , Obeidat, B.Y. , Al-Suradi, M.M. , Al-Suradi, M.M. , Masa’ deh, R.E. , Masa’ deh, R.E. , Tarhini, A. and Tarhini, A. 2016 The impact of knowledge management on innovation: An empirical study on Jordanian consultancy firms It is well organized and the authors define the important terms and phrases. The article is clearly stated and supported by diverse evidence The information is only based on the data collected from the Jordan consultancy firms and some contributions from Polanyi and Nonaka. Leonard‐Barton, Dororthy 1992 Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development It is possible to verify the facts raised in the paper. The author has a clear introduction and focuses efficiently on the thesis statement until the end. The article is full of hard terms that are not literally defined. Goh, Andrew L.
S. 2005 An integrated management approach to leveraging knowledge innovation The authors efficiently explore the theories of Nonaka and Polanyi about the field of Knowledge management The article is clear and effectual The paper contains minimal evidence of the writers’ argument. Hislop, Donald. , Newell, Sue. , Scarbrough, Harry.
and Swan, Jacky 2000 Networks, knowledge and power: Decision making, politics and the process of innovation There is a proper definition of all the necessary terms. The introduction, argument, and conclusion match, thus enhancing the understanding of the reader. The authors’ have only conducted a shallow investigation, which makes their work biased. Peters, Stuart. R. and Coles, Ann-Marie 2006 Strategic innovation in sustainable technology: the case of fuel cells for vehicles It clearly addresses its intended audience.
There is an efficient reference to the contributions made by Polanyi and Nonaka Only relies on one case. Not reliable for a wider knowledge about knowledge management Ribeiro, Rodrigo. and Collins, Harry. 2007 The bread-making machine: Tacit knowledge and two types of action Well organized and with information that is well researched Only focus on the knowledge management associated with the bread-making machine Polanyi established theory of knowledge, which emphasized the identification of tacit and explicit types of knowledge. Polanyi’ s philosophy was applied in the KM theory developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi’ s (1995) the theory of organisational knowledge creation (Ribeiro, and Collins, 2007, 1418).
The KM theory establishes the innovation process and the externalization of tacit knowledge. Initially, Polanyi divided human knowledge in explicit and tacit knowledge and asserted that knowledge is based on human conditions whereby the process of thinking enhances the generation of new knowledge. Nonaka and Takeuchi (199) theory of knowledge creation is important in the history of KM that is conducted in the contemporary world business by diverse organisations (Ribeiro, and Collins, 2007, 1421).
In the chemical and engineering divisions, the company experiences hardship in sharing of knowledge because the majority of the employees in the field are under contract and they have a time limit which makes them fail in commitment. Polanyi, on the other hand, identified that tacit knowledge is personal and dependent in nature, as identified by Hislop, Newell, Scarbrough, and Swan, (2000, 402). Polanyi establishes that tacit knowledge is untraceable, not conscious, and the knower is unaware. Many KM authors for externalization significantly apply Polanyi and Nonaka’ s theories. The innovative businesses generate new knowledge, develop new products, plan well for likely change, and concentrate on research and development.
Knowledge management is capable of creating an innovation economy (Peters and Coles, 2006, 342). Knowledge management has the ability to create, transfer, and distribute organizational information and it applies and combines the sets of the knowledge management process. Knowledge management process is a process comprising of acquiring, storing, disseminating, and applying knowledge related to organizational issues and claimed that it leads to the competitiveness of an organization, as per Polanyi’ s philosophy.
Innovation as the new idea introduced in a company is interrelated to the application of technology, where the idea is developed and implemented in the company in a new way (Goh, 2005, 59).
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Ashok, M., Ashok, M., Narula, R., Narula, R., Martinez-Noya, A. and Martinez-Noya, A., 2016. How do collaboration and investments in knowledge management affect process innovation in services?. Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp.1004-1024.
Chua, A.Y. and Banerjee, S., 2013. Customer knowledge management via social media: the case of Starbucks. Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp.237-249.
Diamantini, C., Potena, D., Proietti, M., Smith, F., Storti, E. and Taglino, F., 2013. A semantic framework for knowledge management in virtual innovation factories. International Journal of Information System Modeling and Design (IJISMD), Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.70-92.
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