The paper "How Organisations and Management Have Continued to Progress since the Beginning of 20th Century" is a perfect example of business coursework. There is a great deal of researched social evidence that supports the fundamental observation that people will always go-ahead to form groups that include; workgroups, businesses families as well as distinct professional associations. It is noted that any given successful manager will recognise the overall impact of the organisational environment on different members of an organisation (Weatherbee, Durepos, & Mills, 2012). Organisations never exist in a static world but rather it is solely focused on engaging directly with the underlying operational environment.
Taking into account that those organisations operate under open systems, it certainly receives inputs from the immediate environment and acts on them to generate outputs that relate to either products or services (Scott, 2004). It thus means that organisations form a crucial part of human interaction through management. The focus of this paper is providing an overview of how organisations and management have continued to progress since the beginning of the 20th century. The social and cultural aspects of organisations would tend to involve the different set of discourses of organisations that are deemed to be basically found in fields of management and organisation studies that focuses on behavioural psychologies as well as the economics of a firm (Weatherbee, Durepos, & Mills, 2012).
It is important to note that all of these modern-based discourses of the 20th century are merely attributed to the rationalisation thesis of differences between them altogether. From a sociological point of view, the task of understanding organisations lies in establishing their relationships especially between social institutions and their relative historical actions.
For instance, it can be established that BP, in its quests to restore the prior social trust it had gained over time, committed to ensuring that the oil spill would be conducted in a more robust manner. The firm’ s management is seen to have involved most of the stakeholders that range from different government institutions to civic groups to ascertain that they were indeed obliged to restore the flora and fauna. The perspective also perceives organisations as being social systems composed of firms for which both people and production processes are organised (Scott, 2004).
In fact, it is established that this latter perspective has continued to attract a broader sense of adherences as well as practical appeal amongst notable organisational theorists in the period commencing the 20th century. It is common for some organisational analysts to invoke the Weberian social action theory while others adopt a neo-rational strategic management technique to analyse organisations. Research indicates that throughout the entire 20th century and as a result of modern situations of functional utility; there has been an expansion of the aspects related to the division of labour and differentiation of specific circumstances (Scott, 2004).
In essence, the institutionalisation process of policy-useful societal approaches tends to overlook the political approaches to solving definite social organisation problems. In due course, the level of crucial approaches to the practices of organisation, production and work was greatly associated with sociologies of work. Basically, organisations are a fundamental social unit that is created for the mere purpose of accomplishing specific distinctive goals like in the case of such NGO like World Vision whose mandate lies in helping the needy societies with fighting poverty and injustices while profit-making organisations like Apple and Tesla are in the business of maximising shareholders’ wealth (Scott, 2004).
For most cases, organisations are characterised by such aspects as a common goal; a distinct set of shared values; a continual base of goal-oriented interaction model as well as a notable system of authority or rather a chain of command (Drucker, 2007). To effectively understand the rapid development facing major organisations today, it is important to analyse a set of different management theories.
Under the scientific management school, it is noted that Taylor started and commenced the modern era of management whereby he focused on replacing the rule of thumb with actualised and timed-based observations that resulted to the single-perfect set of practice (Drucker, 2007). He emphasised that immediate transformations amongst organisations should adopt a systematic training of its underlying workforce as opposed to allowing them personal discretion in their immediate relative tasks. This school of thought ascertained that the workload could be fairly and evenly shared amongst workers and management so that the latter would be executed science-based tasks while workers conduct labour-related activities thus each of them doing what they are best suited to do.
In the period commencing the late 19th centuries and the beginning of 20th century, organisations enjoyed Taylor’ s contributions especially in relation to the breaking of complex tasks into a given set of sub-tasks while still optimising the set of these duties (Drucker, 2007). A perfect example can be seen in a manufacturing organisation like Ford that has its tasks effectively broken down so that engineers and designers are allowed the opportunity to execute science-based duties while the sales representatives and logistics sections handling labour-related tasks.
It is important to understand that Taylor was focused on revolutionising autocratic management style that was the order of the day in the course of the industrial revolution to a science-based solution to inefficiencies that faced workers then. It should further be noted that from an economic perspective, Taylor’ s model of work approach was indeed a success given that the application for the different methods his emphasis resulted to a significant amount of improvements in production capacity amongst modern organisations.
Taylor came up with four distinct sets of principles of management (Drucker, 2007). Taylor indicated that there was a need to formulate a definitive science of work that would be necessary for replacing the old rule of the thumb technique; whereby pay and another form of rewards are directly connected to the accomplishment of an optimum set of goals and objectives and overlooking them would result to significant loss of earnings (McKenna, 2006). Consequently, he noted that the workforce was to be scientifically chosen and thereby developed even further.
He further noted that the science of work was to be supposed to be integrated with scientifically selected and trained personnel for purposes of accomplishing the best of outcomes. Finally, he also advocated for the division of both work and responsibility in an equal and fair manner amongst the workers and management that work together and thus, prompt a degree of interdependence (McKenna, 2006). In Addition to Taylor’ s school of thought, there was a Gilbreth motion study that emphasised on the need for the centrality of efficiency within organisations.
Moving forward to the efficient contemporary organisation, Gilbreth focused on ascertaining how he would reduce the level of unnecessary motions that was a common phenomenon in construction projects.
Booth, C. & Rowlinson, M., 2006. Management and organizational history: prospects. Management & Organizational History, vol.1, no.1, pp.5-30.
Drucker, P.F., 2007. Management challenges for the 21st century. Rutledge.
McKenna, C.D., 2006. The world's newest profession: Management consulting in the twentieth century. Cambridge University Press
Scott, W.R., 2004. Reflections on a half-century of organizational sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, vol.30, pp.1-21
Stinchcombe, A.L. & March, J.G., 1965. Social structure and organizations. Advances in Strategic Management, vol.17, pp.229-259.
Weatherbee, T, G, Durepos, G & Mills, J, H. 2012. Theorizing the past: Critical Engagements. Management & Organizational History, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 194-202