IntroductionHow gratis and secure are we as persons? This is the vital question behind the idea of human security. This question attracts the attention of both the thinkers and policy makers. International organizations, governments, ordinary citizens and even non governmental organizations (NGOs) after being freed from the constraints of the cold war are acting to broaden the extent of freedom and safety, (Axworthy, 2001). On one hand, international relations scholars and security studies remain cynical about the thought of human security, in disagreement that it’s too broad and hazy concept to be used practically or analytically.
On the other hand, decision makers more and more recognize the significance of human security as a policy structure, (Roland, 2001). The idea of human security can be delineated clearly in relation to the leading, neo-realist notion of security and that its fundamentals can be presented efficiently for further refinement, (Foong, 2001). It is argued that, it is important and possible to carry out a yearly audit of human security same as the human development is audited on an annual basis by the United Nation Development Program (UNDP) in its human development report, (Katzenstein, 1996). The notion of security has more and more come under scrutiny from practitioners and scholars with the stop of the cold war.
Security is all about how nations use force to manage intimidation to their territory veracity, their domestic political order, and their autonomy mostly from other states, (Sorpong, 2009). This is classical formulation to national security and has been criticized on different basis. Some people argue that the classical formulation is too unilateralist in its stress on force in a globe with weapons of mass destruction and where interdependence is knitting states together, (Shurke, 1999).
The idea of security here is that, security should give way to cooperative security. Others argue that classical formulation restricts the range of security to military intimidation from other nations. This view suggests that, the antagonist nations can deploy other types of intimidation in opposition to each others domestic political order and territorial veracity. They may include economic, environmental and cultural intimidations. Security can’t be limited to the welfare of the nation, (Roland, 2001).
In the classical formulation, security should be restricted to the states welfare but the most essential thing should be wellbeing and protection of the human being or individual citizens. This is referred to as human security which should be centered above all on the inviolability of individual being. This paper explains the concept of human security, (Axworthy, 2001). Concept of human securityThe notion of human security can be traced way back in 1960s, 1970s and 1980s the time of increasing dissatisfaction with current ideas of security and development. In mid 1970s, home of security studies, international relations and the multinational world order models project (WOMP) launched an effort to construct and envision a just world order.
This drew interest to the problem of personality safety and wellbeing, (Axworthy, 2001). The most significant forerunners of the notion of human security were the reports of multinational autonomous commissions which were composed of intellectuals, prominent leaders and academics, (King and Murray, 2001). World problematique series were produced in 1970s by the club of Rome group which contained the notions that complex of tribulations affecting men of all states: they include: insecurity, loss of faith in institutions, environmental degradation, and economic and monetary disruptions.
This report noted that “All persons in the globe face a sequence of problems and pressures that requires his actions and attention, (Katzenstein, 1996). These troubles affect him/ her at various levels. For instance: concern of personal power, worries about speculated wars among others which require global concern for the wellbeing of the individual. There should be state of global equilibrium in order to ensure that individual basic needs are provided, while ensuring equal opportunity for each person and initializing global development and global security so as to improve and sustain individual lives, (Axworthy, 2001).