The paper "Influencing Oil and Petrol Consumption - Consumers’ Behavior " is a good example of marketing coursework. Corporate social responsibility is becoming a critical part of every organization. The environment offers interactivity space to every organization. They obtain raw materials from the environment and they give back to the environment through the sale of finish products. So there must be a healthy relationship between the organization and the environment. The general public is becoming sensitive to the role organizations play in safeguarding the environment. Undesired impact in the environment caused by an organization can lead to negative publicity about that organization.
The consumer would likely develop a negative attitude toward the organization which they do not respect the environment (Engel, kollat & Blackwell, 1978). A good relationship between the public and the organization boosts the throughput to the organization while a negative relationship reduces the throughput. A good relationship is guaranteed when an organization actively participate in giving product and services that do not harm the environment in any way (Benbasat, & Zmud, 2003). Literature Review Consumers’ behavior is given great attention in marketing strategic plans.
It is considered to be a ground in which marketing policies are laid. There are large and diverse bodies of research dating back to the 1960s. These researches have made a huge contribution in explaining what consumer behavior is in relation to marketing. Their efforts have shaped the understanding of consumers’ decision-making processes. The discussion has led to the development of many theories and models that elaborate on the process (Fishbein, 1975). Over a long span of time, there have been continuous additions of knowledge on the topic.
However, a quite number of critics have also made their say but their arguments are not comprehensively supported evidence. Among the famous theories and models which form the mainstream of marketing and education are; model of Nicosia (1966), Engel, kollat and Blackwell (1978). Their argument was base on cognitive orientation. They believed that consumers’ behavior is a process that begins with problem recognition and ends with post-purchase behavior. According to them the core concept of marketing are; need wants and demand. They define wants as a desire for specific satisfiers of deeper needs and while people are fewer their need are many.
They define need as a state of felt deprivation of some basic satisfaction. On the other hand, demand is a want for specific products that are back up with the ability and willingness to buy the goods. In their contribution, they clarify that marketer does not create need instead they influence wants along with other social influencers. They influence demand by making the product more attractive, affordable and easily available (Engel, kollat & Blackwell, 1978). The contribution to EKB is what forms today's marketing subject.
Despite widely being accepted there are quite number critics that have to argue against EKB. Among them are notably Follax (2005). He questions the validity of the cognitive orientation of EKB and made a different argument on the subject. He instead supported Bettman's theory of consumer choice processes. According to Bettman (1998), he argues that the decision process is dynamic and interactive with contextual and environmental influence. Other scholars who argue differently are Polanyi (1957) and Gronovetter (1985). According to the consumer behavior is conceptualized and embodies social-cultural structure that affects economic decision making, albeit of the context of the industrialized inter-firms network.
The concept was extended to immigrants’ enterprise by porter and Sensenbrenner (1993). EKB is the early and most cited in the literature although there is little evidence that supports its predictability. The theory breaks up decision making into five discrete but link stages (Rau, 1980). The discrete are problem recognition, information search, and evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision and post-purchase behavior. The most recent version of theories clarifies the need for contextual influence in decision making and identifies a number of relevant exogenous variables (Fishbein, 1973).
However, it falls short of providing a comprehensive explanation of the influence of social interaction on decision making. It does not clearly place the decision making to where it belongs. Culturally IT consists of a pattern of beliefs, value, and attitude which tend to establish a pattern of buyer behavior consistent with an established cultural group (Limayem, 2004).