The paper "Chinese Industries and Economic Reforms" is a good example of macro and microeconomics coursework. China economy has grown right after economic reforms and liberalization of trade. Initially, china operates under policies that made the economy poor and even to stagnate. China’ s economy has been constantly transformed from the old planned economy to the one which is being influenced by the market. After these reforms, there was a noticeable growth in many areas of the economy. China began its economic reforms towards a market-oriented economy in 1978 (Chow, 2004, p 127).
The management of industries and various sectors of the economy were different before the reforms and after the reforms were implemented. This paper, therefore, examines how the Chinese industries were managed before and after the commencement of economic reforms with respect to major human resource activities such as planning, training and development. In an attempt to explain the management of different kinds of economic transformation, it is important to understand the drives of the market economy. China could not have avoided change since change is inevitable, economic reforms were contributed by a number of factors such as unpopularity of the cultural revolution that occurred in 1966-1976, most importantly through experience, most economic planners argued that having a planned economy is difficult to manage and is rather economically insufficient, the success of market-oriented economic reforms from neighbouring countries which revealed that it has more benefits which are worth aiming at.
This created the urge to have a market-oriented reform from the people who were ready to support it (Chow, 2004, p 128). Before reforms in 1978, china has a centralised system, meaning that the country’ s economic output was controlled by the state (Morrison, 2014, p.
2). Montias, (1959, p. 963) argues that in soviet planning material balance is the core of everything. This kind of planning is bureaucratic since the decision on all its elements including output orders, imports etc. are made and implemented by the administrative personnel. The bureaucracy was at two levels, the central and the enterprise level and there are two categories under which commodities are placed central and local planned communities (Manove, 1971, p. 393). All parts of the economy were grouped into a large pyramid-like structure (Mc Nally, 2002, p.
3) In the agricultural industry, the centralised system also known as collective farming was done. This described the commune system that was introduced by Mao in 1958. Under this collective form of farming, farmers were organised into groups or teams that consisted of approximately 40 people. Development was tied to how the farmers performed as a group and it was hard for a farmer to earn extra reward or profit even with hard work simply because the team consisted of the many members who would share the reward as a result of additional efforts by a member of the group.
As time goes by the management of the farms changed and growth was realised. Farmers noticed that by working separately and independently they could achieve a lot more. Commune system of farming was therefore changed and land ceased to be communal but individual. Every Individual household did farming independently and each earns additional rewards as a result of extra work (Chow, 2004, p. 129). This described the reform in agriculture where land is now managed independently and growth is realised a system called household system where resources are managed by one person rather than in a group.
Management policies, as well as labour practices, changed. The first phase that occurred during economic rehabilitation and socialist was characterised by on personnel management, the second phase stressed the idea of the commanding role of the party, as well as the political ideology and workers leading role. Phase three in the time of economic adjustment implemented the policies of the first phase (Zhu, 2005, p.
25). The implication of the Commune system is that individual farmers did not have ease with which they could make a decision on matters pertaining to the land something which the fames under the household system achieved.
Chow, G. (2004). Economic reform and growth in China. Annals of Economics And Finance., 5, pp.93--118.
Geng, X., Yang, X. and Janus, A. (n.d.). State-owned enterprises in China Reform dynamics and impacts. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: http://globalcenters.columbia.edu/eastasia/files/beijing/content/pdf/2009-SOEs_in_China-Reform_dynamics_and_impacts_Chinas_New_Place_in_a_World_in_Crisis_2009_0.pdf [Accessed 13 May. 2014].
Hu, V. (2005). The Chinese Economic Reform and Chinese Entrepreneurship. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan023535.pdf [Accessed 13 May. 2014].
Manove, M. (1971). A model of Soviet-type economic planning. The American Economic Review, pp.390--406.
Mc Nally, C. (2002). China’s State-Owned Enterprises: Thriving or Crumbling?. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/3819/api059.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 13 May. 2014].
Montias, J. (1959). Planning with Material Balances in Soviet-Type Economies. The American Economic Review, [online] 49(5), pp.963-985. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1813077 [Accessed 13 May. 2014].
Morrison, W. (2014). China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33534.pdf [Accessed 13 May. 2014].
Zhu, C. (2005). Human resource management in China. 1st ed. London: RoutledgeCurzon.