Essays on Sustainability in Tourism, Unequal Guest-Host Relationships Coursework

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper 'Sustainability in Tourism, Unequal Guest-Host Relationships" is a perfect example of tourism coursework.   Tourism, from the social point of view, is the process in which people from different cultural, economic and social context gain social contact. Relationships are bound to be developed from these social encounters and their nature and sustainability are dependent on a number of factors including the behavior, attitudes and motivations of both the tourists and the local people. Therefore, tourism is essentially a social phenomenon which plays a fundamental role in the tourist experience.

It is the kind of interaction between the host and the guest that gives a specific destination peculiar attractiveness. In other words, actual and perceived social interactions with local people attract tourists in the same magnitude as physical and cultural attractions. Therefore, logically speaking, the future development of tourism within a particular destination can be profoundly influenced by the nature of interpersonal relationships existing between guests and hosts (Nasa 2010). While these relationships have been found important in driving tourism growth, contemporary studies in tourism have revealed the existence of unequal/uneven power relations between the guest and the host.

According to Beeton (2006), the desire to learn about the culture of others can, by itself, act as a travel motivation, but cultural differences can act as a source of conflicts. The tourist-host relationship, therefore, becomes complex and the guest begins to see things differently from reality or from the host's point of view. The gap between the host and the guest, therefore, need to be reconciled so as to achieve the desired outcomes from tourism. This essay is will examine several causative factors to unequal guest-host relationships and thereafter examine steps/measures that the tourism industry has put in place to address the issue. Unequal Guest-Host Relationships ‘ Tourist’ is the person who undertakes a journey away from his normal place of residence or work and where they undertake different roles and activities from the residents of the destination.

To the host, the tourists are considered as guests as they are a mindset of enjoyment. In this regard, the tourist becomes a consumer of the tourism products and services produced by the host. The ‘ host’ on the other hand lacks an exact definition in the context of tourism but can be generally described as the local inhabitants of a particular destination (Wamwara-Mbugua and Cornwell 2008). Theories have been developed to provide greater insight into the dynamic and complex relationship between guests and hosts and more importantly the impact of resistance of the local community to adapt to changes in market needs.

Doxey’ s Index of Irritation (Irridex) is a framework which attempts to conceptualize the impacts of the attitudes of the host community towards tourists. The concept of irritation created among the hosts due to the increasing number of tourists in actually derived from the name of the model.

According to Irridex, the host’ s attitude develops in four main stages: Euphoria, Apathy, Irritation and Antagonism. During euphoria, tourists are small in numbers and they seek to find constructive mergers and relationships with local people. At this point, there are limited commercial activities concerning tourism and the hosts tend to be very welcoming. At the apathy stage, visitors numbers increase marginally and the host begins to take them for granted.

The guest-host relationship becomes more formalized. During the irritation stage, the number of visitors has grown significantly putting more pressure on commercial activities regarding tourism. Competition for resources intensifies between the host and guests which becomes a great concern for local people. Locals become completely hostile towards tourists at the antagonism stage and they could go to any lengths to limit tourism flows (Inskeep 1998).


Beeton, S 2006, Community Development Through Tourism. Collingwood, Victoria: Landlinks Press.

Briendehann, J, and Wickens, E 2004, Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas-vibrant hope or impossible dream, Tourism Management, 25, 71-79.

Doron, A 2005, Encountering the 'other': Pilgrims, tourists and boatmen in the city of Varanasi, Australian Journal of Anthropology, 16(2), pp. 157-178.

Gurung, D, and Seeland, K 2008, Ecotourism in Bhutan: Extending its benefits to rural communities, Annals of tourism research, 35(2), P. 489-508.

Hall, N, & Testoni, L 2004, Steps to Sustainable Tourism: Planning a Sustainable Future for Tourism, Heritage and the Environment. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

Herbert-Cheshire 2000, Contemporary strategies for rural community development in Australia: a governmentality perspective, Journal of rural studies, 16, p. 203-215.

Inskeep, E 1998, Guide for Local Authorities on Developing Sustainable Tourism. Madrid Spain: World Tourism Organisation.

Mowforth, M, and Munt, I 1998, Tourism and sustainability: New tourism in the Third world. London: Routledge.

Nasa, V 2010, Guest host relations: Response of Amstredan supply side for Indian tourist, Tourism destination management, masters dissertation.

Nash, D 1996, Tourism as acculturation or development, In Anthropology of Tourism, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 19 38.

Richard, G, and Hall, D 2000, The community: A sustainable concept in tourism development? In G. Richards and D. Hall (Eds), Tourism and sustainability community development (pp. 1-13). London: Routledge.

Schweinsberg, S, Wearing , S, and Darcy, S 2007, Exploring community sustainability potential in nature based tourism: The far south coast nature tourism and recreation, CAUTHE 2007 conference.

Wamwara-Mbugua, L, and Cornwell, T 2008, The impact of tourism on the consumption environment: Coping and potential praxis in Malindi, Kenya, African journal of business management, 2(6), p. 99-110.

Wearing, S, and Wearing, M 1999, Decommodifying ecotourism: rethinking global- local interactions with host communities, Loisir & Societe, 22 (1), pp 39-70.

Wearing, S, and Wearing, M 2006, “Rereading the subjugating tourist” In neoliberalism: Postcolonial otherness and the tourist experience, Tourism analysis, Vol. 11.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us