Essays on Organizational Culture and Behaviour Literature review

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The paper "Organizational Culture and Behaviour" is a great example of a literature review on management. The trait  approach is a very popular approach to behavior. However, it has raised many questions such as traits that do not determine behavior as a whole rather indicate only some dominant characteristics of the person which are relatively constant or similar on different occasions under similar situations. However, situations are dynamic in nature and, therefore, if the situation varies the consistency of behavioral characteristics may also change. Such variations make the behavioral traits unstable or inconsistent. Another objection to the trait approach is that traits lump together with other traits.

In view of this, any classification of behavior on a trait basis would be misleading. The essence of trait approaches in organizational behavior is the employees possess firm personality characteristics that significantly influence their attitudes towards, and behavioral results to, organizational settings. People with unique traits are subject to be quite consistent in their approaches and behavior after a while and across situations. Literature Review Trait approaches to behavior have raised several questions such as whether traits are methodologically reliable or dependable, varied, or are in tune with philosophical issues involved in behavior as a process. Traits are generally thought of as a source of stability in human behavior that leads them to behave always across special situations and time.

However, research has drawn the attention of psychologists to the fact that consistency of behavior trait varies across situations. This line of thinking has helped to promote situationism. This view states that behavior is more a product of a particular situation than a product of enduring person as characterized by traits or types.

Thus, no person is equally honest or domineering all the time and situations. Behavior is predicted generally on the basis of trait but hardly can what a person can do in a particular situation be predicted. At best, it can only be indicated on the average tendency of behavior in a certain way across the situation. Therefore, trait theory does not describe personality features in totality because of the characteristic features of the situation are not given any consideration that plays a role in determining behavior.

Thus, people are dependent or independent, active or passive, aggressive, or calm not only because of inherent internal trait characteristics but also because of external rewards or threats inherent in the situation encountered by people. Social learning theorists such as Mischel (1976) argue that individual personality is not consistent across situations, and for this reason using traits to predict behavior is a waste of time, believing instead that a good predictor of behavior is often the situation a person finds themselves in. however, work psychology is behavior that occurs within the physical and/or psychological boundaries or contexts of organizations.

Cherrington (1989) has indicated that an organization is a social structure (a set of interrelated elements that contains resources from the environment to which it “ exports” some useful output product) that is comprised of the formed actions of a group of people (relatively stable and predictable events that continue to occur with regularity) that tend to be goal-directed. This definition seems to imply that a family unit (of whatever type) is indeed an organization.


Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinchart & Winston.

Cherrington, D. J. (1989). Organizational behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Kenrick, D. T., & Stringfield, D. O. (1980). Personality traits and the eye of the beholder: Crossing some traditional philosophical boundaries in the search for consistency in all of the people. Psychological review, 87(1), 88-104.

Pervin, L. A. (1984). Current controversies and issues in personality. New York, NY: Wiley.

Pervin, L. A. (1985). Personality: Current controversies, issues, and directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 83-114.

Schein, E. (1990). Organizational culture. The American Psychologist, 45(2), 109 - 119.

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