The paper “ Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning” is a forceful example of an annotated bibliography on management. Knowledge management and organizational learning are related concepts when viewed from both a practical and a theoretical perspective. In both, decisions and actions play an important role, although these aspects are used in a slightly varying manner (Dierkes et al 2001, p. 172). In both knowledge management and organizational learning, decisions produce actions. Knowledge management mainly involves making decisions while organizational learning involves acting and monitoring on the basis of what has been planned out (Nonaka, von Krogh & Voelpel, 2006, p.
1187). This annotated bibliography focuses on five articles. The first article, by Firestone & McElroy (2004), focuses on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning. The second article is authored by Gourlay (2004) and it is in the form of a book review. The third research paper focuses on business format franchising and knowledge creation and it is authored by Lindblom & Tikkanen (2010). The fourth article is by Walczak (2008), who dwells on an international perspective in his research on Knowledge management and organizational learning.
The last article is by Dimitriades (2005), who stresses the need for the creation of strategic capabilities in the new economy. Title and reference of the article Firestone, J, & McElroy, M, 2004, ‘ Organizational learning and knowledge management: the relationship’ , The Learning Organization, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 177-184. Type of article Descriptive analysis Aim/purpose of article The aim of the paper is to develop a process framework for delimiting the scope of Knowledge management. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis [methodology] The paper is based on a review of literature from various books that the researchers have authored in the past.
These books include: McElroy (2003), Firestone (2003), Firestone & McElroy (2003a) and Firestone & McElroy (2003b). On this basis, three tiers of business processes are distinguished. These include operational business processes, knowledge processes, and processes for managing knowledge processes. Findings There is need for OL (Organizational Learning) and KM (Knowledge Management) practitioners to join up and address the concerns relating to these two areas in a coordinated manner. There is a narrow form of KM, referred to here as first-generation KM, whose schemes are largely IT-based, and which is mostly meant for capturing, delivery and use of knowledge. Second-generation KM takes on more challenging questions of production, testing, and evaluation of knowledge before it is integrated into a usable form. Significance of article in relation to: other articles, your topic OR prior research. The research outcomes are significant for the both KM and OL, the two areas where there are many similarities.
The research is relevant for practitioners who want to explore the similarities between KM and OL further. Limitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focus The article does not delve deep into knowledge processing patterns.
This limitation arises because, knowledge, by its very nature, is not produced until tentative solutions and previously formulated claims of knowledge have been evaluated and tested. Strength/s of article The article provides a consistent comparison of the concepts of knowledge management and organizational learning. It contributes to a better understanding of how these two concepts are related. Weakness/es of article The article suffers from subjectivity. The authors appear to be imposing their views on the reader. They have analyzed and described only those books that they have authored. Title and reference of article Gourlay, S, 2004, ‘ On Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management’ British Journal of Management, Vol.
15, pp. 96– 99. Type of article Book review. Aim/purpose of the article To review the book: The Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management, by Easterby-Smith, M, & Lyles, M, (Eds. ), 2003, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis [methodology] The article reviews different aspects of the books. All the four parts into which the book is organized are listed, and all chapters are described. Focus is put on editors’ suggestions on how to map all chapters into two broad dimensions: process/content and theory/process. The perspectives adopted by authors of different chapters are spelled out.
Shifts of emphasis from one chapter to the other are highlighted as well. Attention is drawn to various themes that the author thinks have been neglected. The subject under review being a handbook, special attention is drawn to those chapters that are dedicated to the discussion of basic concepts. Findings The editors have contributed greatly to the existing literature on knowledge management. The handbook appears to complement another one by Dierkes et al (2001).
The editors have succeeded in getting the authors to contribute to both sides of the knowledge management debate, that is, practice and theory. US researchers have dominated the contributions (34 out of 60 authors). Likewise, most of the contributors are from business management schools as well as countries where English remains the principal language. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior research The article is significant in the sense that it reveals who the main contributors in knowledge management are, both in terms of discipline and to a smaller extent, geographical distribution.
The review shows the nature of contributions that are made in typical handbooks and the weak points that need to be addressed by future editors of knowledge management handbooks. Limitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focus There is the homogeneity of the intellectual background of contributors, an observation that manifests itself rather implicitly. This may have resulted in the inadvertent omission of relevant and interesting contributions. Strength/s of the article The unique aspects of each chapter are highlighted in their own light, without comparisons being made with the views of other authors within the handbook. Weakness/es of article Authors of different chapters find it very difficult to disentangle concepts of learning and knowledge management. Title and reference of the article Lindblom, A, & Tikkanen, H, 2010, ‘ Knowledge creation and business format franchising’ Management Decision, Vol.
48, No. 2, pp. 179-188. Type of article Conceptual review Aim/purpose of the article The article’ s aim is to make a contribution to knowledge creation and management of business format franchising through determining how franchisors may convert the tacit knowledge that is held by franchisees into explicit knowledge. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis This article is a conceptual analysis.
It is largely anchored on various assumptions made in knowledge management, organizational knowledge creation theory and theories of organizational learning. Findings The article’ s findings emphasize on how the conversion of franchisees’ tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge remains one of the best knowledge management practices that are required for success in business format franchising. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior research This research is significant in the way it sensitizes franchisors to continually think about how knowledge is created within the realm of business format franchising, particularly the tacit knowledge that franchises often provide can be converted into useful explicit knowledge. Limitations of the article, e.g.
location, industry, focus The dynamic process of knowledge creation has not been explained clearly, particularly with regard to business format franchising. Strength/s of the article The article’ s organization is clear, thus facilitating the determination of the extent to which it is original. A wide scope of literature review work has been carried out and the arguments presented with regard to tacit knowledge, therefore, are authentic and credible. Weakness/es of article The theoretical findings are too many.
This is an indication that the article has cast the net too wide. For this reason, no single theoretical aspect of business format franchising has been discussed exhaustively. Title and reference of the article Walczak, S, 2008, ‘ Knowledge management and organizational learning An international research perspective’ The Learning Organization, Vol. 15 No. 6, pp. 486-494. Type of article Literature review Aim/purpose of the article The article examines knowledge management (KM) and organizational learning (OL) issues from the perspective of international studies. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis [methodology] A literature review of KM and OL is carried out.
The research focuses on businesses that are situated outside traditional Western economies Findings There is a need for research on KM and OL to be increased, particularly with regard to different and multiple countries. Moreover, cultural factors ought to be included in the research analysis of KM and OL. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior research The literature review shows that there is need for national culture and various geopolitical influenced to be represented in different KM and OL models as well as measurement instruments in order for the application of KM and OL research worldwide to increase. Limitations of the article, e.g.
location, industry, focus Only practical empirical evidence has been supplied in all the articles that have been highlighted in the literature review. Strength/s of the article The article adopts an international perspective, something that few researchers of KM and OL focuses on. Weakness/es of article The article does not highlight any theoretical model that can be used to make sense of KM and OL from an international perspective. Title and reference of the article Dimitriades, Z, 2005, ‘ Creating strategic capabilities: organizational learning and knowledge management in the new economy’ , European Business Review, Vol.
17, No. 4, 314-324. Type of article Research article Aim/purpose of the article The purpose of the research paper is to make a contribution to the literature on knowledge management and organizational by offering clarification on concepts and making a presentation on a framework that illustrates this relationship. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis The research paper is based on a conceptual discussion of various approaches to how the current issue is extrapolated currently and in the future. Findings The analysis provides a basis for the suggestion that in order for companies to become successful in the new economy, they need to innovate and adapt, and therefore, to learn more effectively than their counterparts. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior research This paper is useful because of the way in which it portrays the ability to help managers of organizational learning and knowledge management to develop and implement the best learning and knowledge strategies, thereby developing a sustainable competitive advantage. Limitations of the article, e.g.
location, industry, focus The concept of ‘ new economy’ is not succinctly described and highlighted in the paper. Strength/s of the article The paper shows how knowledge management and organizational learning concepts and approaches are positioned in the current theories and practices while putting a focus on future trends. Weakness/es of article No predictions are made on future changes in the new economy and how this may affect shifts in theoretical and practical aspects of knowledge management. ConclusionThis bibliography has established the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning. These two concepts have been discussed in various contexts, including international business situations, the new economy, and business format franchising.
Today, there is a wide inventory of literature on knowledge management. The availability of several handbooks on the concept indicates the presence of a platform where basic practical and theoretical aspects can be discussed (Wilson, 2000, p. 51). The researches reviewed here to point out the various areas where further research needs to be carried out.