Essays on What Is Organisational Culture All about Coursework

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The paper "What Is Organisational Culture All about" is a good example of marketing coursework.   Undoubtedly organizational culture is one of management’ s fashionable areas with relatively recent history. The aim of this paper is to provide the meaning of organizational culture and its way of expression within the organisation. As with many other managerial concepts, organisational culture has many definitions. Oliver & Lowe (1991) define organizational culture as consisting of a set of beliefs, shared by most of the organizational staff, beliefs about how employees should behave at work and the important tasks and goals to be achieved.

According to Stahl and Grigsby (1997), organisation culture refers to a set of beliefs, a set of values and major meanings shared by the organization’ s members. According to Nastase, M. (2001), and organizational culture is values, beliefs and ways of a company’ s empirical management which reflects its system and structure in the way the development and implemented of co-operating strategy is done. Organisational culture refers to the way an organisation does things (Deal & Kennedy, 1982). It is all written and unwritten rules, ways of thinking and concepts that differentiate one organization from another and is reflected in its interaction with both internal and external environment (Choudhury, 2014).

Organisational culture directs employees to understand what is good or bad and to act according to the organisation’ s principles and values (Hofstede, 1980). Schein (1999) characterizes culture as comprising three levels; behavior and artefacts, values and assumptions and beliefs. Behavior and artefacts are the most visible level of culture comprising of behavior patterns and outward manifestations like dress codes, the physical layout of workspaces, and the level of technology utilized.

They may be difficult to interpret though they may be culture’ s visible indicators. Artefacts and behaviours can also reveal what a particular group is doing, but cannot give the reason why. The second level of cultures values, which motivates or determines behavior, though they cannot be observed directly as behaviours. Assumptions and beliefs are the third levels of cultures. Essential assumptions grow out of values until they are no longer appreciated or made unaware. People may not be aware or able to articulate the assumptions and beliefs that form their culture’ s deepest level (Schein, 2014). People create, maintain or transform organizational cultures.

The leadership of the organization also creates and maintains the organisation’ s culture. Executive-level leaders are the primary source of for the creation and re-infusion of specification of norms, articulation of core values and ideologies of the organization (Dalglish, & Miller, 2010). Literature treats the content of organizational culture differently. Organisational culture was structured in three levels by Williams and Dobson: (i) of convictions and beliefs entrenched in the staff’ s consciousness which often is not aware of these, (ii) of attitudes and values are chosen and displayed by employees, and (iii) of behavior of individuals and groups within the organization.

Comparison between organizational culture and onion has been made by other researchers in the sense that both have multiple levels, but when a first glance is taken only one layer is noticeable (Drenan, 1992). All these approaches have common thing-overlapping multiple levels. Forms of manifestation of organizational culture are less visible by its main form of manifestation are rituals and ceremonies, behavioral rules, statutes, symbols, stories and myths of the organization and the role of the staff.

These manifestation form part of the way in which, organization culture is expressed with the organization.

References

Choudhury, I. (2014). Culture. Texas A& M University). Retrieved on August 6, 2014, from

Dalglish, C., & Miller, P. (2010). Leadership: Understanding its global impact (1st ed.). Tilde University Press.

Deal T., E & Kennedy, A.,A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books.

Drenan, D. (1992). Transforming Company Culture. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Hofstede, Gt (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications

Hofstede, Geert (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind., McGraw-Hill Professional

Keyton, J. (2011). Communication and Organizational Culture: A Key to Understanding Work Experiences. SAGE, p. 1-34

Lowe, J & Oliver, N. (1991). The High Commitment Workplace: Two Cases from a Hi-Tech Industry.Work, Employment & Society, 5(3): 437-50

McShane, S., L. (2000). Organizational Culture. Retrieved on August 6, 2014, from

Nastase, M. (2001). Ways Manifestation of Organizational Culture. In Economia- seria Management, 4(1).

Stahl, M. J., & Grigsby, D.W. (1997). Strategic management: Total quality and global competition. London: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Schein, E (1992). Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. p. 9

Schein, E. M. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership. (3rd. ed.). Jossy-Bass.

Schein, E. M. (1999). The corporate culture survival guide> sense and nonsense about Culture change. Josey-Bass

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