The paper "Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts" is a wonderful example of an assignment on environmental studies. a The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a concept that was coined by the World Health Organization to describe the idea that not all years are created equally in health terms. For example, an individual who is suffering from a disability such as COPD will not have the same quality of life as a completely healthy individual and therefore their year cannot be quantified in the same way. It is a way of understanding the burden of disease on lifestyles and judge how much of a burden different issues are on how an individual lives their life (Gurjar, Molina & Ojha 170). b According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 4.6 million life-years are lost due to air pollution every year (Gurjar, Molina & Ojha 173).
c Particle size has an effect on health. Particles that are larger than 10 nanometers in diameter are found in the upper regions of the respiratory tract, such as the nose and upper throat. Particles 1 nanometers in diameter or less can reach the lower areas of the respiratory tract, such as the very base of the lung (Gurjar, Molina & Ojha 171).
The types of effect that these have on health, therefore, differ – larger particles are likely to cause superficial illness such as a cough, whereas smaller particles in the lower echelons of the lung are likely to have a larger effect as they are more likely to reach the bloodstream and other areas of the body. All particles can cause premature death, heart attacks, irregular heartbeat and problems in individuals with asthma, as well as being linked to COPD (Gurjar, Molina & Ojha 180).