IntroductionTechnological changes, changes in customers’ tastes, new innovations, and emerging management systems have constantly shifted organization’s structures, processes and outcomes. With these, has been a constant change in business legal environment and relations. While today, most organizations are moving towards neo-liberal system of management, many industries, which have long historical grounds from Marxism’s radical approach to neo-liberal system. The influences of globalization and increase in lobby groups have immense changed industrial relations in almost all companies across the world. Originating from Britain, industrial relations movements have swept across many nations across the nations. However, the impact of industrial relations in these nations differs a lot.
In United States for example, industrial relations have wielded a lot of power in uprooting poor employment systems based on racial segregations and child labour. Industrial relations in United States are so strong that many organizations have given in to their demands. Contrary, nations like Australia have not experience the impact of industrial relations since Labour laws hinders their operations (Heery & Bacon, 2008). From industrial revolution times, three major industrial relations have been identified to date: radical, unitary and pluralist.
The radical system is closely tied to industrial relations during Lenin and Marxism. During this time, power was vested upon the capitalists and employees purely acted as the subjects. In record, this was the duration that industrial relations were poorest and marked the birth of workers unions. The neo-liberal society system has come with two major industrial relations; the unitarism and pluralist perspective (Srinivas, 2004). From the word unity, unitarism perspective sees an organization as a family. Managers and employees are seen as single unit with same principles, goals and vision.
The family share interest and work through mutual understanding and trust. Consequently, legal structures and industrial relations are deemed unnecessary powers in the family system. Industrial relations are foreign bodies that rarely get place in the unitarism system. Pluralist on the other hand, sees organization as a large body made up of cells of network. Each of these units is distinct and works separately. Every unit has its own management system, leadership and visions. They embrace industrial relations and legal structures as modes of augmenting and bargaining for their positions for coexistence.
It is believed that the system precedes unitarism in industrial revolutions. Pluralist has given trade unions more strength than any other system. In augmenting their position, pluralist takes any mode from round table discussions to strikes (Marschall, Forthcoming). Management systems have also evolved to meet the organizational changes. Several methods have been developed through both scientific studies and trial and error methods. The most managements styles that have been observed in many organizations are: top-down approach, piecemeal approach, change negotiations and bargains and the systematic jointism. These methods were applied by different companies at different times depending on the management crisis they were facing (Luria, Vidal, Wial, & Rogers, 2006). Companies such as Nethew were known for their focus on communication as a management pillar.
The management team in piecemeal systems ensure that employee’s grievances are addressed through open communication system. The approach banned communication barriers between the employees and the management team. Apart from problem solving, communication was used as a tool for organization decision making between the employees and the management. As a result, piecemeal is an approach of solving problem internally without involving external bodies such as the unions (Lasbury & Wailes, 2010).