The paper ' Smoke Control Systems' is a great example of a Management Case Study. The aim of this report was to review the use of mechanical and natural smoke ventilation systems in common corridors of apartment blocks. In apartment blocks, smoke control systems are needed to protect the stairs where occupants will use to escape in the event of a fire. Common corridors or lobbies to join the stairs in many multi-story apartments. These stairs need to be free while conditions in the lobbies or corridors need to be improved.
In order to improve conditions for fire fighting and escape, thermal exposure, toxicity, and obscuration need improvement to fire and rescue activities. Architectural layout and space restrictions limit smoke control but Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and calculation provide performance-based solutions (Magdanz, 2002). Smoke control systems provide smoke clearance and escape by rescue service and fire and aid any fire safety strategy in place. 1.1Natural ventilation systemsSmoke control in high-rise apartment buildings involves two main requirements; fire fighting and means of escape. Both applications are engineered to use natural ventilation or pressurization to perform in emergency situations. 1.1.1DescriptionNatural ventilation results from buoyancy forces that differ in density from ambient and smoky air gases owing to differences in temperature (Federation of Environmental Trade Associations, 2012, p. 7).
This ventilation type consists of two types in use in high-rise apartments. First, lobby and corridor ventilation provide natural ventilation because it allows for ventilators to be installed into the walls of corridors with the flexibility of automatic opening in the event of a fire. It requires a combination of smoke shafts, and ducts, and smoke dampers (see fig.
1), especially on enclosed lobbies and corridors. Second, stairwell ventilation is where ventilators are installed within the stairwell (see fig. 2) to create safe means of entry to firefighters and safe exit routes for occupants. In most residential flats, lobby, and corridor ventilation as well as stairwell ventilation provide maximum smoke protection by working together (FETA, 2012).
Carlsson, 2005, Flame spread and fire growth-Modeling capabilities in various room configurations, Swedish defense research agency. www.foi.se/.../foir_1579.pdf
Colt, 2011, Smoke control in apartment buildings, http://www.promet.co.il/image/users/198083/ftp/my_files/catalogs/colt/smoke/smoke%20in%20apartments.pdf?id=9021101
Colt UK, 2011, Smoke control and environmental ventilation systems for multi-storey residential buildings, http://www.coltinfo.co.uk/smoke-control-residential-buildings.html
Federation of Environmental Trade Associations (FETA) 2012, Guidance on Smoke Control to Common Escape Routes in Apartment Buildings (Flats and Maisonettes), Smoke Control Association. https://www.feta.co.uk/uploaded_images/files/SCA%20Residential%20guide%20June%202012%20Revision%201.pdf
Gubeau, N & Zhou, XX 2004, Evaluation of CFD to predict smoke movement in complex enclosed spaces, Health and Safety Laboratory, http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr255.pdf.
Magdanz, 2002, An Overview to Designing Smoke-Control Systems, ASHRAE Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 32-37. bookstore.ashrae.biz/journal/download.php?file=MAGDANZ.pdf.
Shevtec, 2012, Powered Smoke Shaft Ventilation System for a Residential Development, secontrols.com. http://www.ribaproductselector.com/Docs/7/22967/external/COL522967.pdf