The paper 'Happiness and the Human Development Index' is a good example of a Management Assignment. Companies in Australia have been planning for the future demands of the workforce and in so doing, are trying to understand the motivators behind each generation of workers. This is what has brought a transformation in the workforce. For instance, with Baby Boomers moving towards retirement, efforts are made to ensure that the vacuum is bridged. Then there is emotional labor --- the attempts of an employee to display the right emotions. Within this context, the individual suppresses or evokes a given emotion so as to conform to certain social norms of organizations.
This report analyses workforce changes and how emotional labor is an issue in the service industries. How the workforce is changing in Australia The Australian workforce can be seen as a case where changes affecting the workforce are embedded. From the period of the Baby Boomers to the Next Generation, such changes have been encouraged, as they ensure service is done within market competitions. Within Australian organizations, there have been differing styles, values, and opposing attitudes amongst generations which have necessitated transformations in the workforce.
As David Blanchflower and John Oswald (2010) note, the current working environment within Australia makes for organizations comprised of four generations, where these generations have been trying to replace each other. Currently, the workforce that has been driving these organizations is the Baby Boomers, who, according to Davis Edger (2011), are moving closer to retirement and are quickly replaced or have been replaced by a fresher and more enthusiastic workforce. To conceptualize this point, Charles Clegg (2009) researches on Victoria, which is an organization with a diverse and strong economy.
Its economy has been driven by an even stronger workforce comprised of staff aged over 55 years, meaning that the workforce belongs to the Boomers. As a matter of fact, Clegg adds that ‘ … 70% of its highly skilled workforce comprises hardworking generation (104). However, since 2010, Victoria has been in the process of changing its demographic composition, with the high rate of Baby Boomers retiring or retired. This has been done with the aim of shaping Victoria to be a ‘ radically unique workforce’ that conforms to technological demands and changes (Clegg 2009, 109).
To affirm these findings, Peter Lewis and Lisa Seltzer (2010) argue that the dynamics of the Australian workforce have been changing from Baby Boomers to what has been termed Generations X and Y. It is actually reported that in 2009 alone, Australia had about 176,000 fresh graduates seeking to practice their innovations within the labor market. Such innovations sought to do away with the old generation especially in the shrinking labor pool (Commonwealth of Australia 2010). An important factor that needs to be understood with regard to how the workforce is changing is the generational cohort theory, which is in turn embedded in the differentiation and segmentation of a population-based on experience or age.
Such changes have been brought by a desire to attitudes and beliefs the cohort has with regard to their shared life and the aspirations of their organizations. The point of this argument is that innovations and technology have greatly changed the working environment, and this has called for changes in organizations. With cohorts such as Generation Next, Generation Tech and IGeneration dictating the composition of an organization, when changes are engineered, organizations aspire to replace Baby Boomers and Generation X, since they want to be adaptive to innovations and technology.
Paul Miller (20007) takes a case study of Rio Tinto Group which has changed some of its workforces to be technology-oriented and retained Baby Boomers, as they are generally loyal and hold the majority of decision-making power within the Company.
Blanchflower, David and John Oswald. 2010. “Happiness and the Human Development Index:
The Paradox of Australia.” The Australian Economic Review 38(3): 307-18.
Clark, Evans and Anne Oswald. 1996. “Satisfaction and Comparison Income.” Journal of Public Economics 61: 359-81.
Clegg, Charles. 2009. “Psychology of Employee Lateness, Absence and Turnover: a Methodological Critique and an Empirical Study.” Journal of Applied Psychology 68: 88-101.
Commonwealth of Australia. 2002. Intergenerational Report 2002-03. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Edger, Davis. 2011. The War over Work. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Ferres, Nicholas. and Isaac Firns. 2003. “Attitudinal Differences Generation- X and Older Employees.” International Journal of Organisational Behaviour. 6(3): 320-33.
Lewis, Peter. and Lisa Seltzer. 1996. The Changing Australian Labour Market, 11, Australian Centre for Economic Performance, Canberra. Journal of Applied Psychology 352-412.
Mackay, Henry. 1997. Generations. Sydney: Pan MacMillian.
Miller, Paul. 2003. “Organisational Values and Generational Values: a Cross Cultural Study.” Australasian Journal of Business and Social Inquiry 1(3) 120-137.
Minichiello, Aroni. and Lewis Alexander. 2001. In-Depth Interviewing: Principles, Techniques and Analysis. 2nd edn. Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman.
Quantum Market Research. 2003. “What are Tomorrow's Leaders Thinking Today? The 2003
Leadership Survey.” Melbourne: Leadership Victoria & Quantum Market Research.
Sayers, Richard. 2002. Cultural Implications of the Shift Towards a Knowledge-Based Company. Melbourne: RMIT University.