HR Planning and Job DesignExecutive SummaryThis paper throws light upon Human resource planning and the role of job design in current corporate setting. The primary HRM functions generally include planning for HR needs which consist of planning and forecasting the organization's short and long-term HR requirements and analysing the jobs in the organization to determine their duties and purposes and the skills, knowledge and abilities that are needed; staffing the organization's personnel needs which include identifying job applicants and selecting from among those most appropriate for the available jobs; performance management and remuneration which includes appraising and evaluating employee performance and analysing and motivating employee behaviour; and other functions like improving employees and the work environment and establishing and maintaining effective working relationships.
Analyzing various factors, it transpires that organisations are being forced to consider issues of flexible job design, family friendly workplace culture and a general acceptance of a change in the employment contract. The Australian Industrial Relations Commission has made clear its intention to support individuals working flexibly where the demands of the job can be met through workforce re-design.
Concluding all facts and figures, it may be considered that individual solutions to flexible working are increasingly favoured but are difficult for an individual to negotiate with organisations putting pressure on to work longer and harder. IntroductionSchultz and Schultz state that the purpose of job analysis is to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by workers on a particular job. A job analysis includes information about the tools or equipment used, the operations performed, the education and training required, the wages paid, and any unique aspects of the job such as safety hazards.
(Schultz and Schultz, 2006, 76-80) The purpose of the job analysis is to collect information for job description, job specification, job design, human resources planning, recruitment, selection and so on (Stone, 2005, 140-43). BackgroundAccording to the Business Council of Australia (2005), by the year 2020 the number of people retiring will exceed those entering the labour force. The Australian Human Resource Institute in 2004 further supports the Business Council through a report by Access Economics (2001), that only 125,000 people will enter the labour market for the decade 2020-2030 compared to 170,000 entering the single year of 2001.
(ABS, 2003; and cited in Mithen, 2004, 10-11)Two primary reasons for the cause of this projected decrease in new labour market entrants have been identified. Firstly, as female participation has increased, fertility rates have decreased to below replacement level in Australia. Secondly, the early retirement culture enjoyed in Australia is one of the youngest in the world with a large proportion of the ‘baby boomer’ generation expecting to retire between 55 and 60 years of age.
(Dann & Oldmeadow, 2005, 121-27; Friedman Christensen & Degroot, 2000, 1-30; Galinsky, 2004, 55-58)Aims of HR Planning and Job DesignOne reason that flexible work options meet resistance is the assumption that presence equals productivity. This assumption does not hold in an economic environment that is driven by results, not time worked. Furthermore, the perception that if an employer gives the employee an inch they will take a mile has been reported by the Families and Work Institute (FWI) to be incorrect and that the employee is likely to be more committed for the employer.
(Bray et al, 2005; Galinsky, 2004, 55-58) Recent research has begun to address the need for cultural changes, by exploring the processes for achieving fundamental workplace change to meet the needs of both employees and organisations. (Rapoport, Bailyn, Fletcher & Pruitt, 2002, 99-102)