Essays on Analysis of Motivation Styles Essay

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The paper "Analysis of Motivation Styles" is a wonderful example of an essay on management. Motivation involves intrinsic and or extrinsic factors that make a person work hard in order to accomplish what he or she is interested in. More often than not, motivation results in positive outcomes (Deci, 1972). Intrinsic factors that may motivate a person usually have an origin from within the individual and more often benefits the individual. Various theories have explained intrinsic motivation in detail (Gallagher & Einhorn, 1976). These theories include attribution theory, cognitive evaluation theory, and self-efficacy theory.

For instance, when an individual is motivated to write a book, such motivation is from within and hence it is an intrinsic motivational factor (Latham, 2007). Furthermore, if a student is motivated to work hard after having scored high grades in a previous test is also an example of intrinsic motivation. In this case, the person derives satisfaction in writing a book or scoring high grades and not what he or she gets after accomplishing these tasks (Miner, 2005). On the other hand, if an individual is motivated to work hard with the expectation of receiving a reward after accomplishing the task, such motivation is referred to as extrinsic (Halepota, 2005).

More often extrinsic motivation involves competition. For instance, if an employee works hard at his or her workplace with hopes of being promoted or having an increment in his or her salary, such motivation is an example of extrinsic motivation (Spera, 2006). Various motivational theories have been theorized by motivational theorists. Some of these include Maslow, Hertzberg, Erg, and cognitive and self-determination motivation theories. Motivation in clinical settings has often been associated with improved results in the treatment of patients (Lepper, Greene & Nisbett, 1973).

It has also been deemed to be a good prediction of results if it is measured prior to intervention. This paper analyses the motivation behavior of a leader of the Respiratory department that I have had a chance of working with. For the purpose of concealing the identity of the person, I will call him Doctor Max of the Respiratory department at New York hospital. I will first describe the situations that Doctor Max handled so well that he left most of us motivated.

Secondly, I will relate these experiences to the motivational theories that I feel he applied and finally make a conclusion. How I was motivated by doctor Max When I first got to New York hospital for an internship at the Respiratory department, I was bored and wondered why I had chosen to pursue a career in respiratory medicine. People, there were much individualistic and were unwilling to provide any assistance to newcomers. The cleaners were not performing their duties in spite of the fact they were being paid well.

Nurses were not attending to their duties as expected and patients, both infants, and adults were losing their lives due to careless mistakes of the healthcare professionals in the department. It was not until doctor Max took over the leadership of the department that the whole situation changed all over a sudden. It was exactly two weeks after I joined the department that Doctor Max was posted there. The first time he came to the department, he was greeted with indifference. In return, Doctor Max greeted everyone with a smile.

The smile was so infective that when he smiled at you, you found yourself smiling back. Thus, many of the employees developed a friendly attitude toward him in the first few days of his stay at the department. Doctor Max’ s first assignment was to ensure that the department was clean. Therefore, he had to motivate or rather make the cleaners to perform their duties. Contrary to my expectation that he would coerce and threaten the cleaners to do their duties he was diplomatic.

He did this by assigning each of the cleaners a specific site of which she or he was to be responsible of cleaning and looking to it that it was always clean. The assigning of the sites was voluntary and democratic in a meeting convened in his office. Each site had a group of cleaners and a leader chosen by the group members. The best performing group was to be rewarded at the end of the year. In addition, the cleaners were encouraged to come with ideas, which could enhance the cleanliness of the department.

The measures put in place by doctor Max encouraged teamwork and competition and the end result was a clean department that everyone wanted to work in. That solved, Doctor Max embarked on the laboratory section, which was notorious for delaying the patient’ s diagnostic results. In addition, most of these laboratory technologists had not upgraded their diagnostic skills and knowledge for a long time. For the delays in the results, Doctor Max solved this by encouraging physicians to sent diagnostic requests that required certain skills to specific technologists.

The specific technologists were identified through a review of their resumes which showed what each of them had specialized in. each of these specialists was assigned a specific place to work from which was well labeled. The labeling of a desk says Mr. Lion Head of Pneumonia diagnosis acted as recognition and worked miracles for most of them were proud of these and worked hard to the expectation of the title. Doctor Max also organized for internal training of these technologists to upgrade their skills in diagnostics.

In addition, Doctor Max sent some of the employees of the diagnostic sector for short term courses, which earned the technicians certificates, and more knowledge in the field. As a result, these employees became more competent and were faster in delivering the correct results to the physicians. In addition, new types of equipment and machines were bought that made diagnosis easier and faster. This made the working environment to be conducive for the technologists. These were not the only sectors of the department that were in pathetic conditions. The nurses and the physicians were also not doing their best in service delivery.

For instance, the nurses were always harsh to patients and were very slow in their duties. Most of the time, the nurses were rumormongering instead of attending to the patients who needed them most. Doctor Max identified that the nurses behaved this way because they were not offered housing facilities like other employees by the hospital. To this end, Doctor Max proposed to the management the need for housing to the nurses to which the management responded positively. Housing facilities were bought in the neighborhood and were given to most nurses.

This motivated them to start working hard. In addition, Doctor Max provided avenues for further training of the nurses and the physicians as well. The nurses were trained by external trainees who insisted on the importance of the nurses giving care to the needy. Physicians were allowed to take study leaves to further their careers. Those nurses and physicians who showed some improvement in their work were rewarded through recognition and an increase in their payments. Physicians were allowed to do their work independently without supervision and this was so motivating since one had to make his or her own decisions in service delivery to the patients.

Most of the physicians and nurses in this department were employed on a contract basis and thus had no job security so they spend most of their time seeking alternative employments. Doctor Max tried to talk to the board of directors on the need to employ some of them permanently to encourage them to work hard. Thus, some outstanding physicians were employed permanently and this made them work harder. As a result of Doctor Max’ s effort to motivate the employees, most of them performed their duties efficiently.

Consequently, the patients were more satisfied with the services offered at the hospital. The admission numbers at the respiratory department increased. The department became the preferred center for the treatment of respiratory diseases in New York City. Thus, the joining of Doctor Max in the department was a blessing due to his motivation for the employees. Motivational theories that were applied by Doctor Max Hertzberg's theory advocates for the independence and rewarding of employees as a way of motivating them (Deci, 1972).

Doctor Max motivated the cleaner, the technologists, and physicians by either rewarding the hard-working employees through recognition and salary increment or by allowing them to work independently (El-Alayli, 2006). Thus to some extend, he applied Hertzberg motivational theory.   Furthermore, Hertzberg's theory advocates for the training of the employees and allowing them to take study leaves as a way of motivation. Through, organization of internal and external training of employees in the respiration department, which resulted in the employees’ motivation, Doctor Max, was implementing Hertzberg motivational theory (Lepper, Greene & Nisbett, 1973).

The provision of equipment to increase the output of the technologists is an example of improving the work conditions discussed in the Hertzberg theory. Hertzberg's theory states that good working conditions motivate the employees (Miner, 2005). Therefore, it seems that Doctor Max realized this attribute for him to encourage the improvement of facilities in the laboratory to encourage the technologists to work hard. Hertzberg's theory realizes that democracy motivates employees and thus Doctor Max used this knowledge to motivate cleaners to work hard by giving the freedom to choose (Weightman, 2008). Under Maslow's motivational theory, safety is in the second hierarchy of needs after the physiological needs.

The employment of nurses and physicians on a permanent basis assures them of job security (Halepota, 2005). Thus, Doctor Max applied Maslow's motivational theory to motivate physicians and nurses. The shelter offers some security to a person. Doctor Max realized that the nurses required this need and went ahead to facilitate its provision. Under Maslow, this falls in the safety hierarchy.

Thus, he applied Maslow here to motivate nurses to work harder (Manuchehri, 2004). By identifying the skills of each of the technologists and making them be recognized, doctor Max was trying to improve the technologists’ self-esteem which is in the forth hierarchy of Maslow (El-Alayli, 2006). Conclusion In spite of the organization, employees require motivation to have a large output. The leader can apply any kind of motivational theory and he can achieve the desired results as exemplified by Doctor Max who applied both Hertzberg motivational theory and Maslow's motivational theory to motivate his employees.

From the discussion, it seems that the two motivational theories, Hertzberg and Maslow, are major motivational theories in organizations.  

References

Buhler, P.M. Managing in the new millennium: understanding the manager’s motivational tool bag. pp. 20-22.

Deci, E. (1972). Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 22(1), 113–120.

El-Alayli, A. (2006). Matching achievement contexts with implicit theories to maximize motivation after failure: A congruence model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(12), 1690-1702.

Gallagher, W. & Einhorn, H. (1976). Motivation theory and job design. Journal of Business, 49(3), 358-373

Halepota, H. A. (2005). Motivational theories and their application in construction. Cost Engineering, 47(3), 14-18.

Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the over justification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), 129-137.

Latham, G. (2007). Work motivation: history, theory, research, and practice. New York: SAGE Publishers.

Manuchehri, A. (2004). Implementing mathematics reform in urban schools: A study of the effect of teachers’ motivation style. Urban education, 39, 472-508.

Miner, J. (2005). Organizational behavior: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Spera, C. (2006). Adolescent’s perceptions of parental goals, practices, and styles in relation to their motivation and achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 26(4), 456-490.

Weightman, J. (2008). The Employee Motivation Audit. London: Cambridge Strategy Publications.

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