The paper "Motivation and Reward System" is an outstanding example of a management essay. The performance of an individual in any organization where he/she is affiliated with is a function of the ability of the person and motivation (P = A x M) (Newstrom and Davies, 2002). Motivation is something that energizes a certain behavior from a person to perform and work towards the achievement of organizational goals. The source of motivation of individuals could be extrinsic or intrinsic. According to study the most effective rewards/motivation system uses the combination of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards.
Intrinsic rewards or motivations are those rewards obtained by an individual in performing the job itself. On the other hand, extrinsic rewards are those coming from the organization, either from colleagues/peers or from the boss, and these include monetary rewards, praises, promotions, etc. Different individuals require different motivating approach. The difference could be a result of differences in the profession, organization culture, and needs of individuals. Each profession requires different sets of motivating factors and mostly are innate and unique in each profession.
One such profession is teaching. The things that motivate a teacher are very unique and motivation for teachers is very essential as the incidence of specific behaviors, such as teaching and learning, discipline and control in schools could be undermined if teachers were not motivated. Dilworth (1991) also notes that motivation, in learning, can also be influenced by nationality, socioeconomic background, gender, and point in time. These factors affect how the receiver perceives the motivation/rewards system. The success of any reward depends largely on the interaction exhibited by the giver and the receiver.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators/rewards are equally important in motivating teachers. But usually, intrinsic motivators are more powerful than extrinsic ones in motivating teachers. Motivation for teachers are critical as this will be manifested in their teaching and this implies that the students like are affected if the teacher are not motivated. The influence of a teacher does not stop in the classroom setting. The effect of a teacher’ s teachings lasts as long as the students live. It is the teachers who develop character and inculcate values to the students and teachers serve as the parents of the students while they are in school.
The most satisfying reward a teacher could ever get is the knowledge that he/she contributed to the progress and growth as well as to the success of his/her students. The self-esteem/self-worth/self-confidence of a teacher increases if he/she sees his/her former students succeed. Just the knowledge that a teacher contributes to the development of the students is already enough to motivate and make a teacher inspired to continue what he/she is doing and strive to perform better.
But extrinsic rewards are also good motivators though not as strong motivators as intrinsic rewards but equally important. Such extrinsic rewards include praises. The importance of praise as a motivator was emphasized in the study by Crow & Crow (1968), ``reward in the form of success is a powerful incentive for activating an individual to continue a satisfying performance. Reward in the form of praise gives an individual a lift and acts as a powerful incentive. '' One of the most powerful motivators is praise that is well-administered.
It tends to remove many if not most interfering conflicts that may be developing. For praise to be more effective, it must be based upon careful evaluation and given with sincerity. An individual tends thereby to be stimulated toward further learning effort if he is informed regarding his progress. Therefore, though teachers are the ones that do a lot of affirmation and praises because they are the ones that praise and do a lot of motivating activities for students, teachers still do need praises also to uplift their spirit. Teachers also need affirmation.
Their self-worth and self-esteem need to be boosted so that they can also boost the confidence of their students. Another powerful motivator for teachers is the provision of trainings and seminars and other avenues for development and learning of teachers. Teachers, being advocate of learning, must not also stop learning, must not cease developing their selves and must continue enhancing their knowledge and abilities as these are what they share to their students. Classroom climate is also essential in teacher motivation. If a teacher feels that the classroom is a safe, healthy, happy place with supportive resources and facilities for teaching for optimal learning, he/she participate enthusiastically in the process of management, administration, and the overall improvement of the school.
The teacher is an advocate of improving knowledge and can also command to the improvement of the physical conditions of the classroom through orderliness, discipline, and control. What takes place in the classroom, even though the classroom itself is not an island, is critical (Maehr and Midgley, 1991). Therefore, depending on the degree of congruence with classroom practices and school environment, teachers teaching activities may dilute or enhance students' performance.
Though the most important source of motivation of teachers is intrinsic, it doesn’ t imply that the basic needs should already be neglected. Teachers are also human and therefore, they also have physiological needs, security needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Therefore, teachers should still be given appropriate monetary pay and rewards as the absence of which will dissatisfy or demotivate them. If their efforts are not compensated well, they’ ll look for other opportunities where their abilities and efforts will be well-compensated.
The security needs of the teacher should also be satisfied. His can be done by giving health and life benefits such as free medical care, insurance, etc. Good relationships with colleagues as well as good working conditions are also good motivators. The working environment should be conducive for self-development and organization politics should be kept t a minimum. It is also essential that individuals are comfortable with their colleagues. The bosses/superiors also play an important role in the motivation of teachers in the organization. Performance of teachers should be appraised objectively and if they performed well, it should be recognized either through giving bonuses or promotions.
Subordinates may feel demotivated if they feel that their efforts and performance are taken for granted and not given enough recognition.
Crow, Lester D. Ph.D. & Crow, Alice Ph.D. (1968). An Outline of General Psychology. New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams & Co.
Dilworth, Mary E. (1991). Motivation, Rewards and Incentives: Trends and Issues Paper No.3. Washington D.C .: Eric Clearing House on Teacher Education.
Maehr, Martin L. and Carol Midgley (1991) "Enhancing Student Motivation: A School-wide Approach" Educational Psychology pp. 26, 3-4, 399-427.
Newstrom, John W. and Keith Davies. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. USA: McGraw Hill