The paper 'Contemporary Human Resource Management' is a great example of a Management Essay. Recruitment of new workers is a common activity for many employers owing to the fact that vacant positions are left after employees are laid off, retire, transfer to other organizations, or quit. In some other instances, new employees are needed as a result of business expansion or restructure. Regardless of the kind of situation pushing for a need to recruit new employees, the fact remains that the position needs to be filled. Getting the right person for the job has proven to be a challenging task for many human resource managers.
The qualities of the employee will determine the overall output of an organization. Currently, human resource managers have adopted different strategies for recruitment and selection of personnel. With the advancement of technology, new recruitment techniques including the use of the internet have emerged. The type of strategy to be used in recruitment will be affected by the skills and competencies required in the position to be filled. The use of simulation tests is one of the selection and recruitment techniques that is normally used.
This essay will highlight what simulation tests are and will give a broad discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation tests as a recruitment technique. Discussions will be supported by various scholarly works. Recruitment is simply the "organization's efforts to key out, attract and influence the job choices of competent applicants" (Ployhart, 2011, p. 869). On the other hand, the selection is basically the process of identifying the most suitable individual whose qualities match the job specifications of an organization considering both the organization's external and internal environments (Swanepoel, 2008, P.
279; Rao, 2007, p. 204). The two terms have often been used together because they make up the entire staffing process. Recruitment and selection is a crucial activity for any organization and it is the function of human resource management. As stated earlier, recruitment and selection will affect the overall performance of an organization. Selection in itself is crucial for the future success of an organization and the common selection tools are; use of interviews, the use of written tests, and simulation tests (Deb, 2009, p.
60). Simulation tests are a testing tool where individuals are put to real-life situations with an aim of finding out if he or she can do actually perform a task as required (Kandula, 2003, p. 70; Pattanayak, 2005, p. 61). There are two commonly known simulation tests are work sampling and assessment centers. With work sampling, a replica of the task is created and the individuals demonstrate their capabilities by devising these work samples (Pattanayak, 2005, p. 61). Examples of work sampling simulation tests are the trade tests that have been created for electricians.
On the other hand, an "assessment center is a two to four-day simulation exercise in which a group of individuals normally about ten, perform an actual job task while being observed by experts" (Dessler, 2005, p. 225; Pattanayak, 2005, p. 61). The applicants engage in activities such as leaderless group discussions, in-basket activities, games, individual presentations, objective tests, and interviews (Pattanayak, 2005, p. 61; Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2013). Simulations tests do vary from other types of testing activities with regard to the advantages and disadvantages it has.
Callinan, M. & Robertson, I. T. 2000. Work Sample Testing. International Journal of Selection, 8(4): 248-260.
Cooper, D & Robertson, I. T. 1995. The psychology of personnel selection. London: Routledge.
Deb, T. 2009. Managing Human Resource And Industrial Relations. New Delhi: Excel Books India.
Dessler, G. 2005. Human Resource Management. New York: Prentice hall Inc.
Eilene Z. (2005 October 10). “Use of Job Simulations Rising Steadily,” Workforce Management. Retrieved 21 November 2013 from
Farr, J. L. & Tippins, N. T. 2010. Handbook of Employee Selection. New York: Routledge.
Gorman, S. 2011. The Recruiting Revolution: How Technology is Transforming Talent Acquisition. UNC Kenan-Flagler Business School.
Hale, B., Jaffee, C., & Chapman, J. 1999. How technology has changed assessment centers. Paper presented at the 27th International Congress on Assessment Center Methods. Orlando, Florida.
Handler, C. 2009, March 11. Job Simulations for Selecting Employees: What might the future hold? Retrieved 25 November 2013 from < http://www.ere.net/2009/03/11/job- simulations-for-selecting-employees-what-might-the-future-hold/ >
Kandula, S. R. 2003. Human Resource Management in Practice: with 300 models, techniques and tools. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Karim, M. R. 2013. Recruitment & Selection: ‘Psychometric’ and ‘Social perspective’ model. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Kluger, A. N., & Rothstein, H. R. 1993. The influence of selection test type on applicant reactions to employment testing. Journal of Business and Psychology, 8: 3-25.
Lievens, F., & Thornton III, G. C. 2005. Assessment centers: Recent developments in practice and research. Handbook of selection, 243-264.
Madigan,J. & HoffMacan, T. 2005. Improving Applicant Reactions by Altering Test Administration. Applied Human Resource Management Research, 10(2): 73-88.
Miller-Merrell, J. 2013. The Importance of Job Simulation in Hiring Quality Candidates. Retrieved 24 November 2013 from < http://blog.eskill.com/job-simulation-hiring-candidates/ >
Moses, J. K. 1973. The development of an Assessment Center for the Early Identification of Supervisory Potential. Personnel Psychology, 26:569-580.
Pattanayak, B. 2005. Human Resource Management. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Ployhart, R. E. 2011. Staffing in the 21st Century: New Challenges and Strategic Opportunities. Journal of Management, 32(6): 868-897.
Rao, v. 2007. Human Resource Management (Third Edition). New Delhi: Excel Books India.
Ruiz, G. 2008, January. Job Candidate Assessment Tests Go Virtual. Workforce Management . Retrieved 25 November 2013 from < http://www.workforce.com/articles/job-candidate- assessment-tests-go-virtual >
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2013. Types of Employment Tests. Retrieved 21 November 2013 from
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 2013. Work Samples and Simulations. Retrieved 21 November 2013 from
Swanepoel, B. 2008. South African Human Resource Management: Theory & Practice. Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd.
Taylor, D. & Fox, G. 2000. The Complete Recruitment and Selection Toolkit. London: CIPD Publishing
U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. 2009. Job Simulations: Trying out for a Federal Job. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States by the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. Washington D.C: U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board. Retrieved from
United States Office of Personnel Management. 2013. Assessment Decision Guide. Retrieved 22 November 2013 from