The paper “ Decision-Making Process Consumers Go through When They Buy Products and Services" is an impressive example of a term paper on marketing. Consumers are among the most important stakeholders of an organization and institution since, the operations, systems, and processes developed and implemented by the organizations are meant to ensure their needs, expectations want, tastes and preferences of consumers are effectively and efficiently met (Solomon, 2010). Without consumers, the work and efforts put in by organizations will be for nothing and lack of consumers means failure and death to businesses.
Organizations are always in competition to ensure they are the best in terms of serving the customer base and thus, gain their loyalty and in so doing, increase the customer base. Since consumers form an integral part in the success of organizations, understanding their needs and more significantly establishing the processes they undergo while making the decisions on whether to buy or not to buy is crucial (Jullisson, et al. , 2005). Schiffman et al. (2011) note that there are varied theories that have been generated about the decision-making process consumers go through when they buy products and services, which can assist marketers to successfully develop and market goods and services.
For these reasons, this report seeks to critically analyze and apply some of these theories to demonstrate how they can be used in marketing. Definition of termsWhen consumers buy products and services they are faced with the task of making decisions. (Schiffman, et al. , 2011) defines decision as selecting an action from two or more varied choices which include decisions of if to or not to buy and the brands to purchase while consumers are defined as people who buy products and services from the market for individual consumption. Consumer purchasing decision-making processAccording to Schiffman, there are three levels of consumer decision making which includes extensive problem solving where consumers have not determined criteria for assessing products and services and they are yet to narrow the number of brands they seek to take into consideration as part of an induced set (Schiffman, et al. , 2011).
There is limited problem solving where consumers have determined primary criteria for assessing products although they have not completely determined preferences.
Finally, the routinized response behavior where consumers have partial experience with product offerings, they have a well-established form of criteria and they can seek a small quantity of information or alternatively, may buy out of habit as discussed by (Schiffman, et al. , 2011). In regards to the routinized response behavior or habitual decision making, such purchases are usually related to low-cost products, frequent purchases, low consumer engagement, familiar product brands, and class and usually, it involves little thinking. Information search and little time are allocated to the actual purchase, among products that fall under the routinized response behavior includes buying a can of soda or energy drink, a pack of cigarettes, a pack of chewing gums and a packet of milk among others. Primarily, the decision making the process a consumer goes through when making a purchase takes place in five stages (Lamb, et al. , 2011).
The author indicates that during the five stages, the consumer is susceptible to internal influences that encompass attitudes, roles, perceptions, and lifestyle and external influences that range from cultures and subcultures, social groupings, household systems.
Important to note is that each situation and influence is unlike (Schiffman, et al. , 2011). According to Jullisson et al. (2005), when a person becomes aware of their need, the mental process begins the consumer decision-making process as they begin to establish means to meet the identified need and once the process is finished. The individuals are countered with the charge of assessing and contemplating all information that influences the actions they take to effectively and efficiently meet their needs.