Essays on Metaphors of Organizational Behavior- Influence of Metaphors on Efficient Functioning of a Firm Literature review

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The paper “ Metaphors of Organizational Behavior  - Influence of Metaphors on Efficient Functioning of a Firm” is a meaningful example of the literature review on communication. The organizations are implementing the projects and the programs to attain specific objectives within a specific time with optimum utilization of the available resources. During the project life cycles, the internal and external environment influences the implementation process, resulting in a deviation from the outlined objectives. The style of leadership and type of leadership will the use of project tools, technologies, and management principles come-up with plausible strategies to cope with the emerging needs especially the successful analysis of metaphors in the organizational behaviors.

Composition of the project team adoption of project life cycle model, constructive use of information, energy, and other resources are regulated by the authorities through their leadership. Legal issues are regulated through the execution of contracts with the contracting parties. The most striking factor which the project proponents faced is change management, which is a litmus test for the success of the whole process(1). The dynamic leadership of the organizations is emphasizing on the fulfillment of the objectives for the smooth implementation and execution of the projects.

Any deviation from these principles would result in derailing the whole implementation mechanism. Meanings of Metaphors in an organization: In a metaphor there could be an implicit or explicit discussion that Mr. A is like Mr. B. Webster's Dictionary defines a metaphor as "a figure of speech containing an implied comparison, in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used for one thing is applied to another" – therefore, Mr. A is Mr. B.

The process of relationship exchange and interaction between Mr. A and Mr. B itself creates a new relationship/meaning (2). In etymological terms, metaphor actually means "transference" - from the Greek myth, meaning "behind, " thereby means to carry. The metaphors are something high type of sentences uttered about an organizational behavior. They provide a rich source of information about organizational attitudes and beliefs.

REFERENCES

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1. Robert B. Duncan, “Characteristics of Organizational Environment and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty.” Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1972), 313-327.

2. Jay R. Galbraith and Robert K. Kazanijan. Strategy implementation, Structure, Systems and Process, 2d ed (St: Paul, Minn: West, 1986)

3. J. Kennedy and A. Everest, “Put Diversity in Context”, Personnel Journal (September 1991).

4. Joseph J. Distefno and Martha L. Maznevski, “Creating Value with Diverse Teams in Global Management,” Organizational Dynamics 29, no.1 (Summer 2000), 45-63.

5. Lennie Copeland, “Learning to Manage a Multicultural Workforce,” Training (May 25, 1988) 48-56.

6. Marilyn Loden and Judy B. Rosener, Workforce America! (Homewood, Ill: Business One Irwin, 1991).

7. Carl E Larson and Frank M.J. LaFasto, Team Work (Newbury Park, Calif,: Sage, 1989)

8. Susanne G. G. Scott and Walter O. Einstein, “Strategic Performance appraisal in team based organizations” 2001, 107-116.

9. J. R. P. Frech, Jr,; and B. Raven, “The basis of social power in group dynamic” (1960) 607-623.

10. Andre L. Delbecq and Peter K. Mills, “Managerial Practices That Enhance Innovation,” Organizational Dynamics 14 (Summer 1985) 24-34.

11. Amir, Y. (1976). The role of intergroup contact in change of prejudice and ethic relations. In P. A. Katz (Ed.), Towards the Elimination of Racism. New York: Pergamon.

12. Press. Barker, P. ( 1985). Using Metaphors in Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner.

13. Mazel. Bennis, W, & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Free Press. Black, M. ( 1962). Models and Metaphors. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.

14. Brewer, W. F, & Nakamura, G. V. (1984). The nature and functions of schemas. In R. S. Wyer, & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition, Vol. 1 (pp. 119-160).

15. Burns, J. M. ( 1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

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