Importance of Learning and Training in the Organization Q1. To what extent does the shift from T&D to HRD parallel the move from personnel to HRM? One of the major differences between personnel and HRM is the shift from T&D to HRD. It means that the shift from T&D to HRD and the other factors resulted in a shift from personnel to HRM. The shift from T&D to HRD was to assist the employees in developing their skills through career development programs, coaching, and succession planning etc. and the shift from personnel to HRM was to manage the people in an organization in a strategic manner.
Therefore, both these shifts were in parallel to each other. How important (strategic) is learning and development for an organisation? Arie de Geus has referred “Organisation” as a “living company”1 and like humans, it needs learning and development to survive in today’s consistently changing economy. If an organisation does not learn and develop with environmental changes then its survival becomes difficult. Apart from that, development is also necessary for optimum utilisation of human resources, to increase productivity, to improve employees’ skills and to develop healthy work environment and organisation culture.
The strategies importance of learning and development of an organisation appears when an organisation undergoes mergers, joint ventures, growth, downsizing or restructuring. In making strategic decisions, the organisations have to develop its future competencies and it is only possible through Learning and development of organisation. What are the differences between learning, training, education and development? Education is the knowledge base of an individual whereas learning is the process of acquisition of new knowledge, skills, behaviours etc.
Training includes the practices and programs, which are conducted to develop the skills of organisation people. Development integrates the skills and abilities of the individuals and results in the growth of skills through learning. Moreover, development can be a result of a conscious or unconscious learning. Education and training can be referred as development whereas; learning is the result of training-led and education-led approaches of development. 2 Whose responsibility is it to improve skills – the individual, the organisation, the government/state? The improvement of employees’ skills is the collective responsibility of individuals, organisation and government.
The individuals’ responsibility is to make efforts on their own to improve their skills. The organisation is responsible to conduct workshops, seminars, meetings etc. to improve the skills of its employees. The government is responsible to establish such organisations that may provide enough sources to the other organisations to develop the skills of their employees. Q2. Employee development What forms of employee development exist in your organisation/organisations generally? The different forms of employee development practices pursued by the organisations include formal education, job experience, interpersonal relationships and assessment.
The employee development practices pursued by my organisations are seminars by experts, e-learning, advisory services, on-the-job training, training, workshops and mentorship programs. Who is responsible for/involved in these? The above-mentioned practices of employee development have been purely organised by the organisation itself. Are these activities effective? Why? The employee development activities adopted by the organisation have helped the employees enhance their skills and their abilities. The periodic employee development evaluation has also shown increased employee motivation and performance. In short, the employee development activities have been really effective.
Q3. Management development What is the purpose of MD in your organisation/organisations generally? The purpose of management development is to allow the managers to learn and improve their skills. It does not only increase the skills of the managers but it also provides a direct economic benefit to the organisation. Who has management development? The management development is the process of improving the skills of the managers in the organisation and only managers are involved in the management development activities. To what extent are the following effective for management development?
Action learning: Action learning is an education process that is considered very effective for management development because it allows managers to improve their performance by studying their own actions and experiences. Coaching and mentoring: In order to sharpen the leadership potential of the managers and to assist them in their promotions, the coaching and mentoring activities are very effective. Projects and secondments: Projects and secondments are considered very valuable for the development of managers. Secondment is considered as the part of talent management programmes and it helps the managers to improve their skills base.
Outdoor management development: The outdoor management development (OMD) focuses on personal development of the managers and includes the combination of classroom and outdoor activities. Such activities aim to develop an environment that may facilitate the changing behaviour of the managers. 3 Q 4. E-learning What is the purpose of e-learning? E-learning is online or web-based learning and it aims to provide convenience and flexibility to learners in their learning sessions. The purpose of e-learning is to increase the access of learners to qualified and recognised experts regardless of the geographical limitations.
To what extent is it used in your organisation/organisations generally? Why? The reliance of organisations on e-learning activities is increasing especially in employee and management development activities. My organisation has provided the managers an access to e-learning activities to improve their skills by allowing their interaction to qualified and experienced people and to reduce training costs. What are the factors influencing e-learning? The factors affecting e-learning can be classified into three categories including organisational factors (such as organisation culture), e-learning providers and facilities (such as e-learning infrastructure) and personal characteristics of learners (such as motivation and interest).
What are the benefits and drawbacks? The benefits of e-learning to the organisation includes reduction in overall cost, decrease in leading times, increase in retention and proof of certification. Its benefits to learners include on-demand availability, geographical flexibility, interactivity, self-pacing and confidence. The disadvantages of e-learning to the organisation include up-front investment, technology issues, inappropriate content and cultural acceptance problems. The disadvantages of e-learning to learners include technology issues, portability and reduced interaction. 4 Q5. Please complete the learning style questionnaire on Blackboard. Class activity Bibliography Kruce, Kevin, (n. d.).
The Benefits and Drawbacks of e-Learning. [Online] Available at: http: //www. e-learningguru. com/articles/art1_3.htm. [4 November 2009]. Oppapers, (n. d.). Importance of Learning and Training in an Organization. [Online] Available at: http: //www. oppapers. com/essays/Importance-Learning-Training-Organization/86515. [4 November 2009]. Soanes, Mark, 2008. The Difference between Learning, Training, Education & Development in Performance Programmes. [Online] Available at: http: //www. prlog. org/10078533-the-difference-between-learning-training-education-development-in-performance-programmes. html. [4 November 2009]. Wilson, P., John, 1999, Human resource development: learning & training for individuals & organizations. [Online] Kogan Page Publishers. Available at: http: //books. google. com. pk/books? id=QQLoNNfa-S4C&pg=PA367&dq=outdoor+management+development#v=onepage&q=outdoor%20management%20development&f=false. [4 November 2009].