1) Humans form an organization's most important assets. At present, organizations are constantly changing which in turn affect the business as well as its employees. In order to maximize organizational effectiveness, human potential need to be managed. In essence, human resource management ensures that employees meet organizational goals. For this purpose, jobs can be analyzed through various methods which include questionnaires, observations, interviews, employee recordings, or a combination of any of these methods. In addition, there are 2 important tools which are used in defining a job which are job description and job specification.
Job description identifies the job, provides a listing of responsibilities and duties specific to the job, mentions performance standards, and specifies necessary machines and equipment. Job specification, on the other hand, states the required education and experience needed to perform the job (Mondy and Noe, 1996). This study studied the impact of job analysis on organizational performance among 148 companies based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Survey results indicated that a practice of proactive job analysis was strongly related to organizational performance. In addition, the relationship was strongest to the extent that companies maintained HR information systems, gave HR greater involvement in strategic planning and focused on competency-based characteristics of employees in the job analysis approaches they used.
The main objective of a job description is to provide a comprehensive picture of the purpose, requirements and context of the job. Therefore, it needs to be written clearly in an easy language, contain information but not subjective arguments. This method of job analysis was developed by Ernest Primoff. It is a worker oriented method and is mainly used with semi-skilled workers and industrial occupations.
Similar to the Critical Incident Technique, this method also focuses on satisfactory workers. It attempts to identify the characteristics or job elements of satisfactory workers. I agree that it is impossible for a standardized job description to capture employees everyday work experiences as an individual comes across a variety of situations while at work whereas a standardized job description simply mentions the key responsibilities at work. A worker may or may not be satisfied by his regular work experience which brings into focus the Motivation-Hygiene theory of Herzberg.
Herzberg’s theory suggests that the factors responsible for job satisfaction and motivation are different from those causing job dissatisfaction. Later, he developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain his findings. He termed the satisfiers motivators and the dissatisfiers hygiene factors. Herzberg also argued that job enrichment is a prerequisite for employee motivation and that it is a continuous management process. Further, his argument was that the job should be challenging enough to utilize the employee’s maximum potential. Next, employees who demonstrate higher levels of ability should be given greater responsibility.
However, if a job cannot be designed to make maximum use an employee's abilities, then the organisation should consider automation or replacement. This is because if a person cannot be fully utilized, then a motivation problem would arise. It is impossible for a standardized job description to capture employees everyday work experiences as five basic needs of an employee need to be fulfilled for him to be productive at work. This theory was put forward by Abraham Maslow. According to him, there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
All of the needs have been structured into a hierarchy and only when a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For instance, a person dying of hunger would want to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food rather than worrying about having job security or getting respect from others.