Assessment 2 “Qualitative Research and Data Analysis”Abstract This study explores qualitative research and data analysis. First, the study discusses characteristics of the qualitative research methods. Second, the terms commonly used in the qualitative research methods are described. Third, the four methods most commonly used in qualitative nursing research are ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology, and historical research. It is followed by discussion on sampling and data analysis. Finally it shows a real example of a research problem which is appropriate for qualitative research design. I. Background and purpose1.1. The background context of the essay The purpose of this research study is to examine the characteristics and concepts of qualitative methods.
The discussion aims at studying challenges of the qualitative methods, analyzing why research questions are necessary for qualitative research, and importance of sampling, and limitations on research methods. 1.2 Relevant theoretical frameworksThe four methods most commonly used in qualitative nursing research are ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenology, and historical research. Each of these designs will be described, with examples of each in relation to school nursing research (Broussard, 2006). Ethnography involves studying a group of people in their own environment.
The goal of ethnography is to learn from, rather than about, people of various cultures, religions, and ethnic groups (Spradley, 1980). The philosophical underpinnings of phenomenology are the basis of this qualitative research method. The goal of phenomenology is to achieve a deeper understanding of the nature and meanings of everyday experiences. Its central focus is the lived experience of the world in everyday life (Carpenter, 1999). The grounded theory approach to qualitative research explores social processes that occur within human interactions. The goal of grounded theory is to develop theory that is grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed (Strauss & Corbin, 1998).
Historical research has been considered a legitimate scholarly method in nursing during the past three decades (Fitzpatrick, 2001). 1.3 Definition of key termsTable 1. Terms used in qualitative researchTermsMetaphorDescriptionReflexivityPreconceptionsTheoretical frame of referenceMetapositionsTransferabilityThe knower’s mirrorThe researcher’s backpackThe analyst’s reading glossesParticipating observer’s sidetrackExternal validityAn attitude of attending systematically to the context of knowledge construction, especially to the effect of the researcher, at every step of the research processPrevious personal and professional experiences, prestudy beliefs about how things are and what is to be investigated, motivation and qualifications for exploration of the field, and perspectives and theoretical foundations related to education and interestsTheories, models, and notions applied for interpretation of the material and for understanding a specific situationStrategies for creating adequate distance from a study setting that you are personally involved inThe range and limitations for application of the study findings, beyond the context in which the study was doneSource: Malteraud (2001)1.4 Aims and objectives This study aims: To critically analyse the characteristics and concepts of qualitative methods, To discuss the strengths and weaknesses qualitative methodsTo critically analyse the need for a research questions and aims and how they are developedTo discuss sampling, andTo discuss the limitations of qualitative researchII.
Qualitative Methods 2.1 Characteristics and concepts The characteristics of the qualitative research are: (1) Subjectivity valued, (2) multiple realities, (3) discovery, description, understanding, (4) interpretative, (5) organismic, (6) whole is greater than the parts, (7) report rich narrative, (8) researcher part of research process, (9) participants, and (10) context dependent Lisa (Broussard, 2006).
Qualitative research methods involve the systematic collection, organisation, and interpretation of textual material derived from talk or observation. It is used in the exploration of meanings of social phenomena as experienced by individuals themselves, in their natural context. Qualitative research is still regarded with scepticism, accused of its subjective nature and the absence of facts. Although the adequacy of guidelines has been vigorously debated within this cross disciplinary field, “scientific standards, criteria, and checklists do exist. ” However, as Chapple and Rogers (1998) point out, researchers often encounter difficulties when they try to apply guidelines designed by social scientists, which deal with issues important in their own discipline, but which are not necessarily generically valid as scientific standards.