Contemporary Chinese Culture: Short AnswersThe 1911 RevolutionThe 1911 revolution in China brought relief to the country after the end of the rule of the Qing Dynasty and the ultimate end of the imperial system. The Qing Dynasty forcefully held into power thus led to inefficient emperors and deprived the Manchu enough power that it deserved. There was serious corruption right from top government officials and oppression against the poor was on the increase. Yujiro (2012) asserts that the contemporary China is a land of economic, cultural and political freedom.
Unlike the Qing dynasty, people from China and the mainland are now doing business together, learning form one another and interacting freely. The subsequent presidents after the revolution including the current one, President Ma Ying-jeou, have emphasized the use of dialogue with the mainland based on the concept of flexible diplomacy. Besides that the revolution enhanced introduction of western, modern ideas into China. This came about due to introduction of treaty-ports and missionary efforts which rough about the concepts of republicanism and democracy which were further reinforced by several Chinese intellectuals. The revolutionary saw a great deal of Chinese intellectuals, who were living in foreign countries during the Qing Dynasty, came back to the country and develop it in social, economic and political perspectives (Yujiro, 2012). The 21 demands The 21 demands were imposed on China by Japan for taking advantage of the European countries entanglement in the WWI.
In the demands, Japan stipulated its intentions to migrate millions of its citizens into spheres of Inner Mongolia and Manchuria, where Japan holds exclusive control over coastal China. Japan also demanded various levels in Chinese government and that it could lease Port Arthur for 99 years.
However, China only agreed to nine clauses among the 21 demands in exchange of Japan acknowledgement of Yuan Shikai’s coming imperial enthronement. The final results of the 21 demands were more negative on Japan than positive. For instance, the government of US expressed negative reactions towards Japan for encroaching Chinese sovereignty. In China, the overall reaction towards the 21 demands was negative with many people developing ill-will against Japan. It actually resulted to the birth of May Fourth Movement which later led to the upsurge in nationalism.
According to… the 1915 Japan’s 21 demands intended to reduce China to a protectorate. This therefore, implies that Chinese culture had been compromised during the era (Xiang, 2012). “New Youth” magazineThe new youth magazine also referred to as the La Jeunesse magazine played an influential role in the spread of May Fourth Movement and during the initiation of the New Culture Movement. The magazine exploited issues of Cultural Revolution in order to support political change. “New year’s sacrifice” and “My Views on Chastity” were some of the most influential readings in the magazine that empowered women over their destiny.
They attacked traditional systems of the family like those that prohibited women from remarrying after the death of their husbands. The magazine has detailed a lot of Lu Xun writings in relations to matters pertaining to women. He explored restrictions placed on women especially on political and economic spheres. For instance, a woman without an heir had no right to claim inheritance of her husband’s property. Arguably, the new youth magazine contributed to political reforms in China through cultural and educational reforms.
In contemporary China, women are more empowered as depicted by their increasing numbers in the business world, politics and in all education platforms.