The Element of Culture Impact the Human Resource Management Quality and Service Delivery of Saudi Arabia Health Care System: Literature reviewA global reality of cultural diversity is emerging with regard to the use human resources in healthcare environments (Luna 1998, p. 9). Nurses are increasingly finding themselves in situations where they have to provide care to people who belong to culturally and educationally diverse backgrounds. In order for the healthcare provided to be culturally competent, the diversity should be molded into professional respect and collaboration. Up to this day, healthcare in Saudi Arabia has been offered largely by foreign professionals, most of who come from non-Arabic speaking countries (Luna 1998, p.
12). Many strategies have been enforced in order to try and educate expatriate non-Saudi doctors on how to offer their services in a culturally competent manner. One of the frameworks for attaining cultural competency in Saudi Arabia is Leininger’s transcultural theory of healthcare provision. This theory has already been proven to be of utmost relevance in different hospital settings where there are more than 40 different nationalities being represented in the workforce (Luna1998, p.
12). In such a context, there is always a real potential for cultural conflicts among staff members. Healthcare professionals who are very new to Saudi Arabia are often introduced to new cultural dimensions of health care provision. These new dimensions relate closely to the country’s patient modes as well as matters of living and working together within a culturally strict environment. Transcultural nursing remains a major component of every professional nursing practice model that purports to offer visionary perspectives for nursing care. Within such a practice model, different transcultural healthcare principles are used as a guide to education, nursing research and clinical practice.
Moreover, Leininger's theory aims at grasping a very comprehensive view of professional and generic health systems. It also seeks to identify different ethical issues that confront nurses in transcultural settings. In a cross-sectional hospital survey that was conducted in a country that that is currently redesigning its entire healthcare system, Walston (2010, p. 36) identified three main organizational dimensions influencing hospital patient safety climate. These include a proper reporting system, management support and adequate resources.
Organizational types were also identified as crucial factors in determining the quality of services offered by human resources in culturally diverse environments. Major changes such as healthare insurance systems and hospital privatization tend to have significant effects on the nature of hospital organizational climates. According to Walston (2010, p. 35), not much research has been done on culturally diverse organizational climates in non-Western contexts, particularly Middle East countries such as Saudi Arabia. Multicultural issues account for some of the problems that are encountered by healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia.
For this reason, hospital managers are often required to put in place positive measures of ensuring that patient safety is guaranteed in the multicultural settings in which the country’s healthcare workforce operates. Health services constitute a high priority issues in Saudi Arabia’s development agenda. The Saudi multicultural society is characterized by extended-family values, devotion to Islam, the Al Saud monarchic hegemony and segregated status of females. This culture is being reconstituted within a new political culture, to ensure that issues regarding progression of human resources and technology are within acceptable limits (Gallagher 1985, p.