Training Human Resource Management Term Paper This paper analyses both traditional and modern orientation techniques, need for orientation process and different steps involved in the complete process. It describes what orientation process is, why it is required for sustainability of a firm, how it is further divided into steps and categories and its role in progress of an organization. Different orientation techniques are elaborated in detail along with their contribution in development of particular skills in employees. The paper also discusses the broader picture of orientation process from both the organization and new employees’ point of view.
In the end a summary of additional alternative techniques is given which can be used not as a replacement of traditional training techniques but as added benefit. Training, why it is required Training is the key process in making human resource capable of producing valuable services to the firm. It is the process of delivering knowledge and skill required for the accomplishment of a particular task. This can be broken into several categories like oral, visual, practical, activity based, long distance etc. All the evolution of life time of human being is a process of training that transforms him from an infant to a person cable of doing what is required of him.
Training is required both while hiring new employees and for the existing ones while introducing a new technology or process change. Trainings carry special significance in improving the standards of performance in the organizations. It is a general fact that knowledge and experience should never become static otherwise their value will get diminished. Hence, trainings would boost the skills of the existing employees and making new fresh ones ready for accepting the challenges of job ahead.
Orientation/ Onboarding Training of new employees can be considered as a sub-category of orientation process. Orientation process is a bigger term that covers some more aspects as well. Orientation is an introductory stage for the new employees where they are assembled and addressed as a part of the process of their socialization with new and current employees of the company (Gandhi, 2010). The term onboarding has also been used in literature for orientation but onboarding covers integration of new employees into the organization only and does not cover the process of delivering what is expected of the new employees, how they are expected to do that and what will be rewarded for their services.
The main purpose of orientation is to make newly hired staff welcomed and familiarize them with work environment and work ethics. It also serves as a mean to reduce anxiety, employee turnover, develop positive attitude in employees and save the time of supervisor by providing him a chance of familiarization to the new team members. Training Process Training process is the complete cycle through which the suitable strategy of orientation for a particular firm is determined, designed and implemented.
Most training processes employ the five steps ADDIE model for orientation training process (Human Resource Management. , n. d.). This model is based on the traditional technique that uses Analysis of the skills required as the first step. Design a model for the training in the second step, Development of that model as third, Implementation fourth and finally Evaluation of the model implemented as the last step of the cycle.
This model can be used both for new employees and for current employees but for current employees another parameter has to be taken into account, without which this cycle will be of no use. This parameter is determination of the reason behind under-performance, whether that is lack of skill or it is lack of motivation to work with the firm. This additional step is the first step in training process cycle for current employees and reshapes the techniques altogether. The key points of the training process can be summarized as follows: “Skill Gapping” or determining what is the status of skills possessed by the employee and what are the skills required for the work expected to be done by that employee.
This gives the basis for a set of skills that need to be given to the employee through this process of training. Analyzing the set of skills and determining the right mode of teaching those skills. This can include an additional step of developing a new model if none of the existing methods is useful enough for teaching a particular skill or if, due to evolution of technology, a new skill has to be acquired. The designed method is them implemented by use of seminars, web content, emails, flyers or interactive activities.
For example IBM uses the concept of virtual environment for training of employees (Second Life concept) (Wexley, 1991). Without evaluation a process cannot be categorized into successful or unsuccessful process so evaluation of training process is done by testing the skills acquired. Traditional Training Techniques These techniques have been used for centuries for Human Resource training and have proved to be successful. Three mainstreams of these techniques are discussed here. Presentation The most common method of training is addressing the people directly, presenting them with charts and figures to understand a skill better and explaining to them how a particular job is done.
Effective Coaching is done by instructing new employees, educating them about their roles and preparing them to coach their subordinates when they have gained enough experience. Hands-On Experience For skills that require some practice, this is the most effective method of training the new employees before actually sending them in the field.
For example waiters can be trained by asking them to practice with current employees in orientation session by taking orders, going to kitchen and returning with orders to their customers. Their performance can be analyzed and corrected right away. Team-Building This is also one of the traditional training ways. New employees are divided into groups and assigned group tasks and activities to develop a sense of collaboration with each other. These practices also benefit the firm by reducing the time to familiarization of new employees and by eliminating anxiety and hostility. Additional Training Alternatives Traditional training methods are still very useful but there are some alternatives that can be utilized to enhance productivity of employees.
These methods include Online Courses which are a great source of learning and acquiring new and better skills. Virtual Training Programs are also beneficial when the firm does not want to incur any costs on providing training space and separate instructors to every group of new employees. Hiring Policy can be made flexible for candidates with extra human resource management training. Motivation to Excel among others can is a free alternative for traditional training and employees train themselves automatically when there is a future benefit involved. Certificate Programs are being offered at a number of universities that provide short courses and summer training programs for human resource management and on acquiring special skills. Grants becausepeople turn to them as a mean to increase capability of existing human resource.
For example Titus which is a leading firm in heating and cooling manufacturing in Texas, received $218,000 for training of new and current employees. Conclusion Orientation process is vital in creating an environment of mutual trust and collaboration in employees. Without proper training if new employees are set to work, there will be hostility and lack of organization.
In case of organizations that require use of particular skills in its human resource, if proper training is missing, the work may collapse altogether due to inability of employees to apply their existing skills in collaboration with others in order to get a job done. Organized training workshops, seminars, hands on training, activity based training is therefore required for proper working of a firm. In the end this paper emphasizes on the need of testing existing and acquired skills of employees through a properly designed orientation system.
References Gandhi, S. (2010, January 19). IBM dives into Second Life. Retrieved from developerWorks: http: //www. ibm. com/developerworks/library/os-social-secondlife/ Human Resource Management. (n. d.). Retrieved from BusinessDictionary: http: //www. businessdictionary. com/definition/orientation. html Wexley, K. N. (1991). Developing and training human resources in organizations. HarperCollins New York