Essays on Key Actors on Responsibility to Protect Implementation Case Study

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The paper "Key Actors on Responsibility to Protect Implementation" is a perfect example of a business case study. The Responsibility to Protect is an international convention that stipulates that a state has the primary role of protecting the population from war crimes, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, and genocide; these are collectively termed mass atrocities. It also states that if a state fails to protect the people, the responsibility falls on the international community. It is also called R2P or RtoP. The international community unanimously supported the concept of R2P during the United Nations Sixtieth Anniversary World Summit in September 2005 (Evans, 2009).

It is mandated to prevent mass atrocities in the event the affected country is unwilling or unable to prevent them. It embraces three distinct responsibilities: first, to avoid crises from arising. Second, to react by putting appropriate measures to end a crisis by using sanctions, international prosecutions or military intervention during extreme cases. Third, to rebuild a state by providing full assistance with recovery, reconciliation, and reconstruction after a military intervention (Bellamy, 2013). R2P stipulates that sovereignty requires responsibility, and all countries must heed this concept.

R2P was founded upon the international legal obligations under the human protection declaration and international humanitarian law. The Security Council was given the responsibility to control the R2P (Evans, 2009). In April 2006, the Security Council adopted the Summit’ s decision on Resolution 1674. However, some countries like China did not initially support this adoption, but they later came to a consensus to adopt and implement it. R2P has three pillars: Pillar I stipulates the protection responsibilities of the state. Pillar II requires international assistance and capacity building if a state lacks the capacity to offer protection to its population.

Pillar III requires timely and decisive responses from the international community (Bellamy, 2013).


"Presidential Elections. UNOCI Resources – United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire".

Bellamy, A.J., 2010. The responsibility to protect—five years on. Ethics & International Affairs, 24(2).

Bellamy, A.J., 2013. The Responsibility to Protect: Towards a “Living Reality”.

Cohen, R., 2008. How Kofi Annan Rescued Kenya. The New York Review of Books, 55(13).

Evans, G., 2009. The responsibility to protect. Palgrave Macmillan US.

Evans, G., 2009. The responsibility to protect: ending mass atrocity crimes once and for all. Brookings Institution Press.

Quinton-Brown, P., 2013. “Mapping Dissent: The Responsibility to Protect and its State Critics,” Global Responsibility to Protect, 5.

UN Security Council, “The Situation in the Middle East”, UN Document S/PV.6627, 4 October 2011, pp. 4 (Russia’s statement), 5 (China’s statement), , viewed 17 November 2014.

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