Essays on Management Analysis of a Technology Company - Apple Inc Case Study

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The paper "Management Analysis of a Technology Company - Apple Inc" is a great example of a management case study.   Management plays an integral role in steering a company towards a path of success by strategically choosing options that should be pursued within the context of macro-environment, competitiveness within the industry and internal factors as argued by Thomson & Martin (2010). Companies which engage in management process such as strategic management have been found to outperform those that do not according to Alkhafaji (2003, p. 3). One way to learn from various firms and the strategic choices they have employed over time so as to drive their success is to conduct management analysis.

Additionally, management analysis can pinpoint the weaknesses in the approach taken by various leaderships during their tenures. The aim of this paper is to conduct a management analysis of a technology company. By utilising the case example of Apple Inc. , the paper discourse analyses five important parameters so as to highlight the management at Apple. 2.0 Apple Company Apple Company was founded on 1 April 1976 when Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs launched the first computer known as Apple I.

However, the business did not pick up well until 1977 when they launched Apple II which resulted into exponential purchase followed by the launch of Apple Disk II in 1978 & Apple III in 1980 (Apple, 2014a). Despite these later challenges, the firm superseded their expectation as at the inception their goal was to grow by $ 500 million according to Iliev, et al, (2004, p. 11). From 1993 through to 1996 the firm went under a turbulent period under the leadership of Spindler and Di Amelio as argued by Apple (2014b).

1997 marked Jobs second stint at the firm and he immediately inculcated new changes in corporate strategies that breathed new lease of life in Apple (Apple, 2014c). Presently, the firm is engaged in designing, manufacture and marketing of personal computers. They equally produce digital music players under the brand of iPod, Tv, Smartphones under the brand of iPhone and Tabled under the brand of iPad as stated by Richey (2008, p. 3); (see appendix 1). In 2012, the total revenue & 156, 508 (m) and in 2013 the firm realised $ 170, 910 (m) revenue (NASDAQ, 2014; see appendix 2).

In terms of the global market share especially Smartphone, Gartner (2013) notes that in the third quarter of 2013, Apple accounted for 12%. This was 2% less as compared to 2012 which they accounted for 14%. During the same period, Samsung was the market leader accounting for 32%. While in terms of percentage there was no decline in terms of absolute value as in the same period Apple sold more than 30 million as compared to 2012 (see appendix 3).

However, Whitney (2014) observes that in terms of the smartphone OS Apple ranked third in Germany, Great Britain, China and the USA (see appendix 4). 3.0 Research, analysis and discussion of sustainability-related strategies and issues 3.1 Role of organisational behaviour at Apple Inc. Organisational behaviour aims at analysing how individuals operate at the workplace as stated by McGinnis (2006, p. 38-39). Kaifi & Noori (2011) indicates that organisational behaviour presents a platform where managers can recognise, explain and finally to develop the attitudes and behaviours of people (p. 89).

According to Locke (2009); Knights & Willmott (2007); Kreitner, Kinicki & Buelens (2001) organisational behaviour domain is applicable in areas such management of people; management of individuals; making decisions & managing social processes; managing organisational processes and managing culture change in the organisation.

References

Journals

Allen, D.G., Bryant, P & Vardaman, P 2010, Retaining Talent: Replacing Misconceptions with Evidence-Based Strategies. Academy of Management Perspectives, p. 48-64.

Ferguson, K & Reio, T 2010, Human resource management systems and firm performance, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 29, No. 5, p. 471-494.

Kaifi, B & Noori, S 2011, Organizational Behaviour: A Study on Managers, Employees, and Teams, Journal of Management Policy & Practice, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 23-56.

Kim, W & Mauborgne, R 2004, Blue ocean strategy: How to create uncontested market space and make competition irrelevant, Harvard Business Press.

Kropsu-Vehkapera, H., Haapasalo, H & Rusanen, J 2009, Analysis of technology management functions in Finnish high tech companies. The Open Management Journal, vol. 2, p. 1- 10.

Longenecker, C & Fink, L 2013, Creating human-resource management value in the twenty-first century: seven steps to strategic HR, Human Resource Management International Digest, Vol. 21, No. 2, p. 29-32.

Lopez-Cabrales, A., Real, J & Valle, R 2011, Relationships between human resource management practices and organisational learning capability: the mediating role of human capital, Personnel Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, p. 344-363.

McGinnis, S 2006, Organizational Behaviour and Management Thinking, Health Care Finance: Basic Tools for Nonfinancial Managers, vol. 37.

O’Gorman, P 2009, Wii: Creating a Blue Ocean The Nintendo Way, Palermo Business Review, p. 97-108.

Skinner, N & Chapman, J 2013, Work-life balance and family friendly policies, Evidence Base, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 1-25.

Books

Alkhafaji, A 2003, Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment, New York, Routledge.

Burrow, L 2008, Marketing, London, Simon and Schuster.

Knights, D & Willmott, H. (Ed.) 2007, Introducing organizational behaviour and management, London, Cengage Learning EMEA.

Kreitner, R., Kinicki, A & Buelens, M 2001, Organizational behaviour, Toronto, Irvin McGraw-Hill.

Levitt, T 1993, The globalization of markets, Readings in international business: a decision approach, p. 249.

Locke, A. D. (Ed). Handbook of principles of organisational behaviour, West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons.

Sengupta, S 2005, Brand Positioning: Strategies for Competitive Advantage, London, Cengeage Learning.

Thomson, G & Martin, F 2010, Strategic Management, Hampshire, Cengage Learning EMEA.

Websites

Apple 2014, Environmental Responsibility: we want to leave the world better than we found it, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.apple.com/environment/.

Apple 2014a, Apple History, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://apple-history.com/h1

Apple 2014b, Apple History, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://apple-history.com/h17

Apple 2014c, Product Images & Info, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.apple.com/pr/products/

Apple Insider 2012, Apple's iPhone believed to account for record 8% of global mobile phone market, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/12/01/27/iphone_believed_to_account_for_record_ 8_of_gobal_mobile_phone_market.html

Appleinsider May 28, 2013, Apple hires former head of US Environmental Protection Agency, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://appleinsider.com/articles/13/05/28/apple-hires-former- head-of-us-environmental-protection-agency.

Burrows, P 2005, Commentary: Apple's Blueprint for Genius. Handling its own design work is one reason for best-sellers like the iPod and Shuffle. Steve Jobs is the other, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_12/b3925608.htm

Hodgkins, K 2014, Apple and iOS Continue to Make Small Gains in U.S. Smartphone Market Share, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.macrumors.com/2014/03/07/apple-ios- comscore-us/

Hughes, N 20 September, 2013, Samsung confirmed to be manufacturer of Apple's new A7 chip in iPhone 5s, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://appleinsider.com/articles/13/09/20/samsung-confirmed-to-be-manufacturer-of- apples-new-a7-chip-in-iphone-5s

Iliev, V., Lindinger, A & Poettler, G 2004, Apple Computer Inc. Strategic Audit. viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.andreaslindinger.net/downloads/strategicmgmts- lindingeretal.pdf\

Krosisnky, C, June 13, 2013, Is Apple the model of a sustainable company?, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-13/is-apple-the-model-of-a- sustainable-company-.html.

Mourdoukoutas, P 2011, Can Google replicate Apple's business model? viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/panosmourdoukoutas/2011/08/15/can-google- replicate-Apples-business-model/

Muehlhausen, J. (2010). Apple's Business Model: Before and After Jobs 2.0. viewed 21st May 2014 from http://businessmodelinstitute.com/apples-business-model-before-and-after- jobs-2-0/

NASDAQ 2014, Apple Inc. Revenue & Earnings Per Share (EPS), viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/aapl/revenue-eps

Price, E. July 11, 2012, City of San Francisco Will No Longer Buy Apple Products, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://mashable.com/2012/07/10/san-francisco-apple/.

Richey, J 2008, Financial Analysis of Apple, Inc, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://cntb.express- files.com/?q=exploring+strategy+9th+edition+pdf&wmid=000&subwmid=352b&ca=eb6 4cb7bceb55cdb248b6a591e0b2fb4

Satariano, A 2012, Bloomberg News. Apple IPhone 5 May Debut in October, Analyst Munster Says, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-04- 19/apple-iphone-5-release-may-come-in-october-piper-jaffray-says

Whitney, L 6th January, 2014, iPhone market share shrinks as Android, Windows Phone grow, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.cnet.com/news/iphone-market-share-shrinks-as- android-windows-phone-grow/

Wooten, L 2010, Building a Company the Steve Jobs’ Way: A Positive Deviance Approach to Strategy, viewed 21st May 2014 from http://www.bus.umich.edu/NewsRoom/pdf/wootenjobspaperFINAL1.pdf.

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