Essays on Business Continuity and Crisis Management Literature review

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The paper “ Business Continuity and Crisis Management” is a breathtaking example of the literature review on management. In the concluding years of the 20th century, organizations (both in the public and private sectors) became increasingly reliant on information systems. As the year 2000 approached, however, the public feared that the dreaded ‘ Y2K bug’ would crash all the information systems, especially those hosted on computer systems. Consequently, managers and security leaders throughout the world developed disaster recovery plans that mainly sought to ensure that systems would continue even if the Y2K bug was to become a reality (Reynolds 2004).

According to Reynolds (2004, p. 7), huge budgets were dedicated to the creation of disaster recovery plans, because “ the prospect of conducting business without the availability of critical systems was too much to endure for many CEOs” . Although Y2K passed with barely any hitches, it left lessons that were viewed differently by the private sector and governments. According to Peck (2006, p. 7), players in the private sector questioned the need to spend huge amounts of resources preparing for things that would probably never happen, while governments saw business continuity (BC) planning as a “ template for dealing with other potentially disruptive events” .According to Hiles (2007), BC planning was and is part of the business continuity management (BCM) discipline.

The underlying concepts of BCM were started in the mid-1980s, specifically for purposes of recovering from an IT-related disaster. In the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attack in the US, however, governments and organizations realized that not only were business systems prone to disasters, but that vital assets such as employees, buildings, customers and valuable data among other things could be destroyed through man-made or natural disasters (Reynolds 2004).

Such realization according to Reynolds (2004) marked the beginning of comprehensive deliberations on how to ensure that business continuity would be managed properly even when disasters occur. Prior to the 9/11 terrorist attack, business continuity had been discussed in the literature as a one-off thing rather than a management process.


Bird, L 2007, ‘Business continuity management: an international perspective from BCI’, In Hiles, A & B Barnes (Eds.), The definitive handbook of business continuity management, pp. 565-572

Botha, J. & Solms, R V 2004, ‘A cyclic approach to business continuity planning’, Information Management & Computer Security, vol.12, no. 4, pp. 3328-337.

British Standard Institute (BSI) 2006, ‘Business continuity management- Part 1: Code of Practice’, BS 25999-1, viewed 20 February 2013, .

BSI 2008, ‘Business continuity management and risk- the role of standards’, Talking Business Continuity, viewed 20 February 2013, .

BSI 2011, ‘Business continuity management and risk management- the role of standards’, BSI Brochure, June, pp. 1-16, viewed 21 February 2013,

Elliot, D, Swartz, E & Herbane, B 2010, Business continuity management, second edition: a Crisis management approach, Routledge, New York.

Hiles, A (ed.) 2007, The Definitive handbook of business continuity management, 2nd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

HM Government n.d., ‘How prepared are you?’ Business Continuity Management Toolkit, version 1, viewed 20 February 2013, .

Peck, D 2006, ‘Final report to the department for environment, food and rural affairs’, Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), viewed 20 February 2013, <>.

Pitt, M. & Goyal, S 2004, ‘Business continuity planning as a facilities management tool’, Facilities, vol. 22, no. 3/4, pp. 87-99.

Reynolds, J W 2004, ‘Business continuity management: developing a process, not just a plan’, Sans Institute GIAC practical repository, version 1.4b, option 1, pp. 1-15.

Roberts, J 2006, ‘Business continuity planning advice for businesses with over 250 employees’, Guide for Large Businesses, pp. 1-15, 28 February 2013,

Smith, D 2003, ‘Business continuity and crisis management’, Management Quarterly, January 2003, pp. 27-33.

Smith, D 2005, ‘Business (not) as usual: Crisis management, service recovery and the vulnerability of organisations’, Journal of Services Marketing, vol.19, no. 2, pp. 309-320.

Wong, W N Z 2009, ‘The strategic skills of business continuity managers: Putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning’, Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 62-68.

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