Essays on Business Strategy of Federal Express Case Study

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The paper "Business Strategy of Federal Express" is a great example of a business case study.   The objective of this report is to analyze the business strategy of an organization, by analyzing the views of different experts, as well as the SWOT and Porter five analysis of the chosen organization. For this purpose, I chose to analyze Fed Ex as it has a strong business strategy.   Strategy: The word strategy came from the Greek word strategies, which means a general. At that time; strategy literally meant the art and science of directing military forces.

Today, the term strategy is used in business to describe how an organization is going to achieve its objectives and mission. Most organizations have several options for accomplishing, their objectives and mission. Indifference to other popular views of strategy, this broad interpretation can accommodate the designation of the basic purpose of the organization as its mission. Goals and objectives are their statements of other things to be achieved in pursuit of fulfilling the mission; strategies indicate the ways management plans to achieve its objective. Over the years different organizations have to develop strategies to survive in an ever-changing business environment.

Strategies exist at a number of levels in an organization (Johnson and Scholes 2002 p56). Every organization has a strategy at any time, although they may not use the word deliberately. If these businesses are to become successful, then innovation and change must be at the heart of their strategic management. Exploring Corporate Strategy, warned that the ' take-for-granted' assumptions in organizations are likely to build an organization to the need for change and how new strategies could be developed (Ambroshini with Johnson and Scholes 1998 p122).

Mintzberg (1979 p12) suggested that the term strategy has been defined in a variety of ways but always with a common theme. He has five definitions for strategy, which he calls the 5 Ps. Strategy as a Plan where some kind of intentionally planned course of action, or a guideline to deal by means of a situation. Strategy as a Ploy that involves scheming and plotting to achieve an objective, often to fool or outwit an opponent or competitor. Strategy as a Pattern in behaviour or ways either deliberately or not. Strategy as a Position, a concept that stresses goal setting and objectives. Strategy as a Perspective that is a set of options and concerns that may be unspoken but defines how the organization operates. Trgoe and Zimmerman (1980 p 11), defined strategy as the framework which guides those choices that determine the nature and direction of an organization.

Hofer and Schendel (1978 p5), the definition of strategy is somewhat different. His definition refers to strategy as the basic characteristics of the match an organization achieves with its environment.

Mintzberg and Quinn (1991 p45) gave the definition of strategy as the model or plan that completely incorporates an organization’ s most important goals, policies, as well as action sequences. A strategy allocates an organization’ s resources into a unique and viable posture based on relative internal strengths and weaknesses, and predictable changes in the external environment. Thompson and Strickland (1993 p6) defined strategy as the complete pattern of moves of an organization as well as approaches of managers which are used to attain objectives of the organization and to wholeheartedly follow the organization's mission.

Michael Porter (1996 p23) defines strategy as the real meaning of strategy performing activities which their rivals do not as well as performing the same actions in a different and more effective manner. D'Aveni (1994 p17) takes the view that strategy is not the only recreation of advantage but also the creative destruction of the opponent's advantage. Brown and Eisenhardt (1998 p4) give a complete and simple definition of strategy as the formation of a constant flow of competitive advantages that when taken together shape a semi-coherent strategic course.

Johnson and Scholes (2002 p34) make a fuller clarification of the word strategy as the direction in addition to the scope of an organization above the long-term, which achieves benefit for the organization throughout its arrangement of resources contained by a changing environment as well as to completely fulfil stakeholder expectations. The point that is made by everyone is that there is no set definition for strategy.

References

Ambrosini, V., Johnson, G., Scholes, K 1998. (Eds),Exploring Techniques of Analysis and Evaluation in Strategic Management, Prentice-Hall, London, pp.122-33.

Arthur A., Jr. Thompson (Author), Alonzo J 1999., III Strickland Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases Mcgraw-Hill College; 11th Pkg edition p6

Atkinson (2004) Large Scale Procurement Change in the Aerospace Industry. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, Vol. 10 (6), pp.25

Cynthia Hardy 1994 ; Managing Strategic Action: Mobilizing Change Concepts, Readings and Cases, Sage Publications Ltd p56

D'Aveni, R. A.1994; Hypercompetition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering. New York: Free Press.p17

De Wit B. and Meyer R., 2004, Strategy: process content, context, Thomson: Singapore, International Thomson p233

Henry Mintzberg 1979: The Structuring of Organizations, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey p12

Hill J Terry 1999; Manufacturing Strategy: Text and Cases McGraw-Hill/Irwin; 3 edition p10

Hofer, C.W., Schendel, D. (1978), Strategy Formulation: Analytical Concepts, West Publishing, St Paul, MN, p5

http://www.fedex.com retrieved on 26March 2007

http://www.fedex.com/cgi bin/content.cgi?template=tw_pr&content=about/pressreleases/apac/pr040298&cc=tw retrived on 26 march 2007

http://www.fedex.com/us/about/today/mission.html retrieved on 26March 2007

http://www.strategy-business.com/press/16635507/06307 retrieved on 26 March 2007

John Grieve Smith 1990; Business Strategy Blackwell Pub; 2nd edition p 30

Kevan Scholes; Gerry Johnson , 2002; Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases FT Prentice Hall p 56, p34

Kim, W. C. and Mauborgne, R. 2006, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts. P78

Mintzberg H et al (1998) Strategy Safari A Guided Tour Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times Prentice Hall p55

Mintzberg, H., & Lempel, J. (1999). Reflecting on strategy process. Sloan Management Review, 40(3): 21-30.

Mintzberg, Henry; Quinn, James Brian. (1991) The strategy process: Concepts, contexts, cases 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall p45

Porter, M. (1996) "What is Strategy", Harvard Business Review, p23

Porter, M.E. (1980) "Competitive Strategy", The Free Press, New York, 1980 p45

Shona Brown, Kathleen Eisenhardt 1998; Competing on the Edge Strategy as Structured Chaos, Harvard Business School Press p4.

Tregoe, B.B., and J.W. Zimmerman (1980). Top Management Strategy: What It Is and How to Make It Work, New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. P11

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