The paper “ Causes of Climate Change, Climate Change Effects on Canada, and Mitigation Measures“ is a worthy variant of case study on environmental studies. Climate change is a hot global debate that has interested many types of research and conferences in curbing the spread of severe conditions such as increased temperatures, increased and reduced rainfall amounts and severe solar isolation. Gas emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds are slowly depleting ozone (O3) that permits the harmful UV-rays to penetrate the atmosphere to the surface. Among the conferences is the upcoming 5th International Climate Conference that was held on 15th to 16th September in Toronto, Canada for which research was conducted by various scholars (Hong et al. , 2015) and (Han et al. , 2015).
These conferences have been held to ensure environmental sustainability partly in Canada and other countries of the world which is a grand objective among nations. Since the issue of climate change is paramount, these conferences have encouraged research on climate change to a better life on the globe. This paper focuses on climate change, the causes, the effects and mitigation measures in Canada. 2.0: Climate changes in CanadaAccording to Intergovernmental Panel, 2014, change in climate is the alteration in the average weather conditions of a place that lasts for a long time, usually over 30 years.
There have been many changes in the climatic conditions of Canada discussed below. Canada is experiencing rising temperatures that have resulted from the increased levels of gases methane, CO2 and, water vapor. These gases have increased the temperatures through blockage of the long-wave radiation from escaping into the atmosphere (Thompson et al. , 2015). This has lead global warming- a state of increased global temperatures on the earth’ s surface. Canada experiences an increase in temperatures of 3 to 5° C which twice as much as the global increase this has been attributed to the anthropogenic causes which are discussed in the cause section of this paper.
Citing examples of the City of Quebec which has a summer average temperature of around 25° C and a winter average of -18° . Toronto has average temperatures of 13° C and 6° C in the summer and winter respectively. This is at least plus 3° C to 4° C compared to the 1900s (Bonsal et al. , 2001). Shifting rainfall patterns are being experienced in Canada increasing the uncertainty in the occurrence of rainfall.
As discussed above, Canada is experiencing an increase in temperature. The southern parts of the country are warmer than the northern parts due to proximity to the equator (Burn and Teleghani 2013). Rainfall is higher in the southern areas due to this factor. Rainfall in Northern Canada is increasing slightly due to an increase in temperatures that have led to an increase in relative humidity in this area for example to the north of Labrador and Quebec a wheat-growing Canadian Province (Burn and Teleghani 2013).
Abbotsford of British Colombia, 1540mm receives the highest amount of rainfall followed by Halifax of Nova Scotia, 1470mm. the Northern region including northern Quebec and Labrador has reached an average increase in rainfall of about 3.4mm from 1990 to 2010. However, rainfall patterns vary from one region to another because of many interplaying factors such as continentality, topography and ocean currents such as the cold Labrador currents that result in little rainfall on the Eastern coasts including Nova Scotia (Burn and Teleghani 2013).
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