The paper "Personality Theories, Behaviorism, Constructivism" is a good example of a management assignment. Personality is defined as the enduring characteristics of a person that differentiate him or her from other people and leads them to act in a predictable manner. Consumer behavior is the study of individuals, groups or companies and the process they use to select or dispose of services. Different theories have been developed to explain personality. These theories include; the Freudian personality theory which suggests that there are unconscious needs in every human's heart that are his or her motivation to do various things.
The neo- Freudian personality theory explains that social relationships are key to the formation of personalities. The trait theory which has been greatly expounded to explain consumer behavior best, states that personality is made from a set of psychological traits. It takes the ideographic view which explains that each person is very unique and you, therefore, cannot compare one person to another. The nomothetic view, on the other hand, emphasizes comparability among people suggesting that the different traits have the same psychological meaning in people. These theories have been very useful to understand consumer behavior.
Marketers mainly use the trait theory to understand consumer behavior in different aspects; consumer innovativeness which is the extent to which an individual wants to try new things. Extroverts tend to be more innovative. The materialism which is the importance an individual attaches to owing an item. Self-consciousness which checks how much an individual monitors their image in the public. Cognition which explains that some people are very detailed in seeking information about a product before its purchase and frugality where frugal people do not just purchase items they choose resourcefully use what they own.
These aspects help understand why individuals behave the way they do in terms of purchasing of items. This also helps understand the target consumers and meet their specific needs. (301 Words) Question 2: Theories of Learning Behaviorism is a learning theory that focuses on objectively observable behaviors. Behavioral theorists define learning as the acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Experiments conducted have shown that behavior is acquired through conditioning. Conditioning can be classified into two, classical conditioning where the response to a stimulus is through natural reflux.
This response to a specific stimulus over time forms a behavior. The other type of conditioning is classical conditioning where a response to a stimulus is reinforced. When this is done severally, it becomes predictable and that is termed as a behavior. The theory has its benefits in that it is easy to understand since it uses observable features, describes several universal laws of behavior, it is used to treat human disorders and punish or reward behavior.
It, however, has its shortcomings where it does not account for all types of learning since it does not consider the activities of the mind, does not explain some learning for which there is no reinforcement mechanism. Constructivism learning theory puts the learners at the center of the learning process and suggests that students build knowledge based upon prior knowledge. It states that there is no knowledge that is independent of the owner and the only knowledge they can create for themselves is based on the information they obtain from the world around them.
The theory teaches students rather than having finite answers to problems, they should create the answer as they see it. This theory has various advantages such as it emphasizes sensory input which makes the students more active learners. This method of teaching and learning has been used in the special unit for some time now. The theory, however, has some shortcomings which are its lacks structure which some students highly require for them to excel, it may cause students to be frustrated as they may lack the ability to relate the knowledge they have and what they are acquiring for themselves.