Generally speaking, the paper "Evolution of End-User-Development" is a perfect example of management coursework. Traditionally, software developers and users were considered as two different entities. Developers would create computer systems that would then be used by users in their day-to-day activities. Recently, however, due to some demands in today’ s information and communication technology, these roles cannot be clearly defined as more users not only utilize the software but also are involved in creating and modifying software. Their role, therefore, is evolving to be more active in information and software artifacts production. Ardito et al.
(2012, 78-90) define users as people who interact with software systems such as software engineers who use tools and environments at their work. End-users are defined as people who do not possess any expertise in computer science and are not willing to but use the computer system in their day-to-day activities either for work or for entertainment. As classified by Rockart and Flannery (1983), end-users fall into three broad categories: the non-programming end users which consists of those who have access to computerized data which is limited by structured applications that have strict procedure and data entry personnel; the command level users class, which includes those who perform simple queries and generate reports for their own use and operational managers; and, the end-user programmers who can develop their own applications. Recent advancements in technology and the rise of the Web 2.0 has enabled end-users to perform activities such as modification and creation of software artifacts which has enabled greater utilization of software developed by software engineers.
These activities range from simple parameter customization to complex tasks such as variation and assembling of components.
This process is known as End-User-Development. According to Margaret Burnett, (2009), the definition of End-User-Development asset methods, techniques and tool that allow end-users who may act as non-professional software developers to create, modify or extend a software artifact. The major factor that has influenced End-user Development apart from advancements in technology and the rise of Web 2.0 is the need for familiarity with software applications. An essential requirement in many professions including medicine, surgery, biochemists, architects, statisticians and film directors if familiarity with software applications which may depend on the mastery of various collections of apps in the respective area of expertise.
End-user development is, therefore, a necessity for the realization of maximal benefits through computational system modeling. Evolution is necessary because the world changes resulting in new requirements and also because skilled domain professionals change over time. Problems Organizations Face in Relation to End-User Development. Many people experience difficulties during their interaction with systems that have been designed without considering the differences in cultural backgrounds, reasoning strategies and the way different people carry out their daily tasks.
The creation of end-user development has helped in solving these problems. However, organizations have also had some disadvantages accompanied by this co-evolution. ACM computing surveys (April 2011, Vol. 43. No. 3, Article 21), records four major demerits that organizations face. These include poor quality control, increased risk during operation, a lot of input in terms of time and labor use and loss of integration with other applications. This can lead to poor quality products and low standards productions by the organizations. These disadvantages are realized mainly because of lack of expertise in the individuals performing these tasks.