Essays on Leaders are Made, Not Born Literature review

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The paper “ Leaders are Made, Not Born” is an  affecting variant of literature review on management. Leadership is a topic that has been researched widely and a lot of public content has been generated in Journals, Books, around the world. However, scholars like Benne, Graf argue that leadership is a role that is unique and totally not identical to any other. They also argue that leaders have an innate generic attribute that fosters their positions as leaders. Nonetheless, they state that opportunities and these attributes are what separates “ born leaders” from “ made leaders” .

This paper, therefore, aims to contribute to the argument that leaders are born and not made as it is commonly perceived by society. It is evident that leaders are born as opposed to the assumption that leaders are made. Fielder, a scientist who specialized in the characteristics and personality of leaders came up with the Fielders Contingency Model which contributes to the argument that ‘ leaders are born and not made’ (Graf 2012, p. 28). In this case, Fielder claims that a leader is an appointed individual or one that it chose to coordinate, direct and oversee the work carried out by other individuals who are to answer to him.

Moreover, he draws a line between leadership and leaders by stressing that some dispositions such as personality characteristics as quite fundamental in one becoming a leader, However, Fielder argues that other factors such as family genes carry very little weight in while arguing that they foster one becoming a leader (Benne 2011, pp. 203-208). On the other hand, some factors such as the educational nature of the job, intelligence level, religion-growth-status, society, and training contribute to influencing an individual’ s leadership stance.

In this case, he argues that these are some of the common external factors influencing leadership (Graf 2012, p. 28). The breakthrough in distinguishing between leadership and leaders was achieved through the introduction of the ‘ cloning’ concept, however; this concept was met with a lot of criticism which was based on the argument that leaders cannot be replicated since they have a relatively different character traits. This led to the rise of the argument that the human mind of a born leader is quite innate. In line with this, William Cohen (Cohen, 1998), came up with the argument that leadership is an ability which not every leader either born or made can assume it through motivation and training.

This approach by Cohen, 1998 was implemented in the year 1940’ s when it was referred to as the “ Greatman’ s approach” however, there was an argument that leadership is an idea which is non-factual and based on the belief that it is correct (Bullock, 2010, pp. 329-331). However, in the year 1948 a new paradigm by Stogdill’ s, 1948 was developed which focuses on the innate leadership approach.

On the other hand, Burn, 1978 stresses that the transformational and transactional leadership which comprises of different components which influence the character of leaders these components include; Idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration. In addition to this, Max Weber, 1998 claims that leadership is fostered by a charismatic Model of leadership as well as the five factors model that reveals that it is difficult for one to embrace change.

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