Literature reviewThe expectancy theory developed by victor vroom in 1964 mainly deals with motivation and management whereby managers are advised to secure a well and motivated workforce. The essence perceived to surround this theory is mainly on the action and behaviors of staffs are based with an objective of minimizing pain and maximizing pleasures. According to Miner (2005), this model consists of elements namely, valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Valence is defined as the strength displayed by an individual in obtaining predesigned outcome. Valence is said to be positive when a person greatly prefers to attain a particular outcome to not attaining it.
When this same individual displays an indifferent attitude valence is perceived to be zero (Miner, 2005). Instrumentality based on Vroom model is defined as belief displayed by an individual to accomplish any give task thus attainment of a valued reward after completion. Vroom explain that instrumentality is considered to be high, usually when an employee believes engaging in certain action will automatically result in attaining reward valued by her. Finally, expectancy mainly relates to what level of confidence does an individual have in accomplishing predesigned objectives satisfactory.
It further goes ahead to indicate that if an individual does not belief he is competent then he may not be feasible to obtain desired rewards (Darmon, 2004). Clearly Vrooms expectancy theory assumes that different behaviors among people are usually as a result of conscious choices that are made among several alternatives. It suggests that relationship described individual behavior while working and their predesigned goals is not as simple as assumed by scientists. In real sense, employee performance during work is mainly connected to personal attributes such as personality, experience, abilities, knowledge and skills (Lawler & Vroom, 2009). An individual is perceived to have a wide range of goals that are usually motivated when certain expectations are put in place.
The theory further predicts that employee tend to believe they are motivated if; more effort is placed so as to yield good performance and good performance will endure reward such as increase in salary are issued (Banks, 2007). Vroom further indicates that when expectancy, valence and instrumentality are significantly met, a certain motivational force occurs among employees.
This force is known to exert pressure on an individual performing a particular task within an organization thus motivation is gained. According to Lawler & Vroom (2009), the larger the motivational force, the more a person is motivated to attain defined outcomes of a specific job. It is correct if we state that the motivational force will remain high as long as valence, expectancy and instrumentality are high and the vice versa is true. Further research on Vrooms expectancy theory indicate that among the many factors known to influence life expectancy for example ability, perception and interest, perception is considered to be more of significance.
Perception is defined as that engine that usually drives individual performance, outcome and effort (Droar, 2006). Motivational Force (MF) =Expectancy× Instrumentality× ValenceExampleEvidently, my working in a multinational organization gave me a clear indication on implication of what vrooms motivational theory describes. Lawler & Vroom (2009) asserts that, constantly, a motivated employee is normally as a result of perceived great levels of satisfaction, confidence displayed in achieving and variety of rewards that this employee hopes to receive after completing certain task or achieve various stipulated goals.
After a clear follow up on a various employees expectancy level under my managerial view point, it was obvious that expectancy was widely defined when an individuals is able to strengthen his conviction in relation to his ability in attaining predesigned goals Lawler & Vroom (2009). Further, most employees when rewarded through increased salary, they tended to account for organization performance satisfactory. Being in a managerial position, I was also forced into creating more effort as part to yield desired yields.
According to Isaac & Pitt (2001), the issue of confidence within one inner self is needed. It is obvious that a self -proclaimed achiever is considered to be more confident when performing his duties thus perfect performance whereas that of a skeptical entirely consists of a much different perspective. Further, an employee who feels that most of his effort do not yield result in terms of attaining stipulated goals is likely to automatically lack or have less expectancy. Probability of this eventuality can only assume value zero and one (Fang, 2008).