Essays on Organization Development and Transformation - Managing Effective Change Literature review

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The paper “ Organization Development and Transformation - Managing Effective Change” is a forceful example of a literature review on management. In today's globally competitive market, organizational effectiveness is one aspect that a manager should incorporate into their systems. Organizational effectiveness is a concept that measures how an organization is effective in achieving its outcomes widely focusing on its management. In the quest to achieve organizational efficiency, it is quite evident that most managers find rational approaches to organizations and organizing appealing. Most managers involve in rational approach since by use of this approach they are able to realize a problem within the organization (Robbins & Barnwell, 2006).

After realizing the problem the manager easily is able to establish and evaluate various criteria that can be used to tackle the problems. The evaluation and establishing alternative criteria ensures that organizational efficiency is maintained thus achieving positive outcomes. Robbins & Barnwell (2006) assert that the rational approach is defined as that model which highly focuses on outlining organizational ability in achieving its designed goals. Organizational goals are mainly identified by way of establishing general goals, discovering set objectives that should be accomplished and finally, defining a set of activities for each set objectives (Robbins & Barnwell, 2006).

The organization is mainly evaluated by highly comparing activities that have been accomplished to those that had been planned for initially. It is for these reasons that from a rational perspective, organizational efficiency should be aimed at attaining specific goals. The characteristic of this approach of organizational efficiency is formalization and goal specificity. Further, it is quite evident that as compared to other approaches such as natural and open, a rational perspective is a more suitable approach, especially at the technical level.

Thompson & McHugh (2002) maintain that this is because the manager is able to offer an immediate response in case of a technical problem. Further, a rational approach at a technical level identifies the various organizational types that can adapt easily especially in varying technical environments. Within organizations, most managers make use of a rational approach since it is mainly directed towards attaining specific goals through formal means (Thompson & McHugh, 2002). Driven by gradual rational decision making, managers who find this approach appealing in organization and organizing are considered to be capable of attaining both long and short term organizational goals (Thompson & McHugh, 2002).

Organizational effectiveness from a rational approach is widely achieved by way of setting specific goals, prescribing organizational behavioral expectations through managers actively involved in formalization of roles and rules and finally, monitoring conformance to the organization's expectations. Thompson & McHugh (2002) maintain that managers who find a rational approach effective are able to create strong organizational form since the rational structure adapted provides ground for predictable and stable behavior for superiors and subordinates. Allen (2001) asserts that, in this approach, managers and subordinates' behavior are rendered reliable due to division of labor that comprises specification of obligations, roles and specific clarity of a defined in a hierarchical relation.

For managers to prevent other superiors from behaving capriciously, the rational approach assists management in formalization or defined roles and expectations (Allen, 2001). Clearly, both management and organizational goals are perceived to increase predictability and rationality within a system. The rationality approach is more appealing since it tries to eliminate organizational complexity by simplifying decisions and a widely developing system that will ensure that all employees and employers support one another in decision making.


Robbins, S & Barnwell, N. (2006). Organization Theory: Concepts & Cases,, 5th Edition Prentice-Hall, Sydney, Australia

French, W., Bell, C. and Zawacki, R. (2005).Organization Development and Transformation: Managing Effective Change. London: McGraw-Hill.

Scott, W. and Davis, G. (2007). Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives, Pearson Prentice Hall, NJ, USA.

Goodman, P., and Rousseau, D. (2004)."Organizational Change that Produces Results: The Linkage Approach." Academy of Management Executive 18, no. 3: 7–20.

Thompson, P & McHugh, D. (2002). Work Organisations: A Critical Introduction, Palgrave, Hampshire, UK

Allen, P. (2001). A complex system approach to learning in adaptive networks. International journal of innovation management, vol. 5,(2) 149-180.

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