The paper "Doing Research in Business and Management" is a great example of a Business Assignment. For the purpose of this question, it is of the essence to first understand what sampling is, the meaning of population, and a sample. To start with, a sample refers to a subset of events, people, or items from a larger set (population) usually collected to analyze or make inferences. On the other hand, a population refers to a set of people or individual units used by the research question to find out about something.
In addition, sampling regards to a method that involves selecting particular units or individual units for the purpose of measuring from a larger population. For instance, an individual interested in knowing the average height of AFL players may decide to carry out a study by first identifying the population in this case AFL players. The researcher may then decide to collect data from a particular proportion or subset of the larger population (AFC Players) which we are referring to as the sample. The sample may include a smaller number of the whole group; the process of selecting a proportion to represent the whole team is what we are referring to as sampling.
For instance, taking AFL team as an example; the team has 700 players; we can make inferences by collecting raw data and analyzing it by using the appropriate sampling technique for to chose a sample from the population, for instance, a sample of 300 players from the rest of the 700 players. Sampling is however divided into two types including probability/representative sampling and non-probability/judgemental sampling. Unlike non-probability sampling, probability sampling every unit present in the population has a chance usually greater than zero of being chosen in the sample hence as such the probability can be accurately examined.
In light of such combinations of the traits, it is, therefore, possible for the technique to produce unbiased estimates that are not biased within the population. Probability sampling usually involves the use of randomization. However, the technique tends to be more time consuming as compared to non-probability sampling. Examples of probability sampling include the cluster, stratified, systematic, and random as well as multi-stage sampling. Simple random sampling, however, it involves giving an equal chance of selection to all the subsets present in the population.
Research might use this type of technique when it wants to exhibit top levels of unbiased and as well want to simply an analysis of the results. In addition, stratified sampling involves organization into the population into different groups usually known as strata. Each stratum is further sampled independently by randomly selecting individual elements from each stratum. This type of technique is used when the researcher wants to draw inferences concerning particular subgroups that otherwise would have been lost if simple random sampling was used. On the other hand, non-probability sampling does not make use of randomization; instead, it gives a chance of selecting the sample purposively in order to reach the difficult to identify members present in the population.
Various methods of non-probability sampling include the purposive sampling, snowball sampling, convenience sampling, and quota sampling. To start with, the snowball technique involves the first respondent referring to an acquaintance or a friend referring to friends and so on. However, despite the method being biased due to selection based on social connections, researchers may use it in studies where higher response rates are needed.
Secondly, purposive sampling involves choosing a sample based on who the researcher thinks would be appropriate for a specific study. Researchers may use this technique in situations where there is only a limited number of people possessing expertise in that particular area of study. Also, the method can be used when the interests of the study are for a specific small group or field.
Boote, D. N., & Beile, P. (2005). Scholars before researchers: On the centrality of the dissertation literature review in research preparation. Educational Researcher, 34(6), 3-15
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Lewis, P. (2012). Doing research in business and management: An essential guide to planning your project. Harlow, UK: Financial Times Prentice Hall