Essays on Governance and Sustainability Assignment

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper 'Governance and Sustainability' is a great example of a Management Assignment. Corporate governance and accountability have in the past few years generated a lot of research attention with many researchers choosing to examine the mechanisms through which corporate management can improve governance and accountability. Given the significance of the management in enhancing governance and accountability, there has been a corresponding emphasis on the need to have a management team that can improve governance and performance of organizations. It is this renewed interest in management that saw many organizations adopt hierarchical management and decision-making structure with a team at the apex of the hierarchy, the Board of Directors (BOD).

This paper seeks to undertake a critical analysis of the role played by the BODs in ensuring enhanced governance and accountability in organizations based on the outcomes of empirical studies and further investigate the impact of governance aspects such as board diversity on corporate accountability. Moreover, the fundamental concepts of corporate governance will be discussed to comprehend the deficiencies that exist in corporate governance systems. Background to the Use of BODs in Corporate GovernanceTo comprehend the role that BODs play in corporate management today, it is important to investigate the conditions and factors that led to the adoption of the boards as the ultimate bodies of decision-making in organizations.

Most empirical literature materials trace the origin of using BODs in corporate management to the conditions brought about by the growth in financial markets. In essence, it is espoused that before the advent and growth of the stock market, large companies were managed by the owners, and there was a need to incorporate more people into management for such businesses to expand.

Using BODs in corporate management was necessitated by the need for economies (economies of scale) to grow that required a large number of different investors to provide money for companies that created an aspect of limited liability in which the team of investors (Board of Directors) made ultimate decisions concerning the management of the business (Solomon, 2007, p. 3).



Adams, R., Hermalin, B.E. and Weisbach, M.S., 2008. The role of boards of directors in corporate governance: A conceptual framework and survey (No. w14486). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Adams, R.B., and Ferreira, D., 2009. Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance. Journal of financial economics, 94(2), pp.291-309.

Bear, S., Rahman, N. and Post, C., 2010. The impact of board diversity and gender composition on corporate social responsibility and firm reputation. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), pp.207-221.

Bebchuk, L.A. and Weisbach, M.S., 2012. The state of corporate governance research. In Corporate Governance (pp. 325-346). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Black, B.S., 1998. Shareholder activism and corporate governance in the United States. As published in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, 3, pp.459-465.

Carter, D.A., Simkins, B.J. and Simpson, W.G., 2003. Corporate governance, board diversity, and firm value. Financial review, 38(1), pp.33-53.

Corbetta, G., and Salvato, C.A., 2004. The Board of Directors in family firms: one size fits all?. Family Business Review, 17(2), pp.119-134.

Cossin, D. 2013, Shareholder Activism Background Literature Review. IMD. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

ECGI, 2016, Shareholder Activism, Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Erhardt, N.L., Werbel, J.D. and Shrader, C.B., 2003. Board of director diversity and firm financial performance. Corporate Governance: An international review, 11(2), pp.102-111.

Eulerich, M., Velte, P. and Van Uum, C., 2014. The Impact of Management Board Diversity on Corporate Performance. An Empirical Analysis for the German Two-Tier System. An Empirical Analysis for the German Two-Tier System (November 8, 2013). Problems and Perspectives in Management (PPM), 12, pp.25-39.

Fairfax, L.M., 2005. The Bottom Line on Board Diversity: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Business Rationales for Diversity on Corporate Boards. Wisconsin Law Review, p.795.

Ferreira, D. 2015, Board Diversity. Retrieved on February 4, 2016 from

Fidanoski, F., Simeonovski, K. and Mateska, V., 2014. The Impact of Board Diversity on Corporate Performance: New Evidence from Southeast Europe. In Corporate Governance in the US and Global Settings (pp. 81-123). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Gazley, B., Chang, W.K. and Bingham, L.B., 2010. Board diversity, stakeholder representation, and collaborative performance in community mediation centers. Public Administration Review, 70(4), pp.610-620.

Gevurtz, F.A., 2004. Historical and Political Origins of the Corporate Board of Directors, The. Hofstra L. Rev., 33, p.89. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Gillan, S.L. and Starks, L.T., 2000. Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: The role of institutional investors. Journal of Financial Economics, 57(2), pp.275-305.

Government Accountability Office (GAO), 2015, Strategies to Address Representation of Women Include Federal Disclosure Requirements. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Otto, L., and Dan M, 2014, Shareholder Activism: Can it be an Effective Governance Mechanism? Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Rampling, P.N., 2011. Board Diversity & Corporate Performance. Available at SSRN 1969229.

Rhode, D. and Packel, A.K., 2014. Diversity on corporate boards: How much difference does difference make?. Delaware Journal of Corporate Law (DJCL), 39(2), pp.377-426.

Russell, 2016, Different Is Better: Why Diversity Matters in the Boardroom. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Solomon, J., 2007. Corporate governance and accountability. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved on February 4, 2016, from

Walt, N. and Ingley, C., 2003. Board dynamics and the influence of professional background, gender and ethnic diversity of directors. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 11(3), pp.218-234.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us