Organizations have clearly defined vision and mission statements that concur with the internal and external requirements of the stakeholders. An organization may decide to change the way that it does day-to-day activities and the way the internal goals can be fulfilled. Usually, numerous reasons are in place that makes the organisation change the way that they approach their duties and their culture. A common reason that can make an organization to change is government legislation and directives. Thus, this means that an organization will change so that it fulfills the regulations and directives, and to improve on organizational market share.
Changes within the market share may be attributed to numerous internal and external conditions that will result in embracing change to ensure for its sustainability and thus profitability. Usually, the process of change requires different strategies to ensure that the operations and functions within the organization are not negated. This means that there are different ways that an organization may choose to accomplish the fundamentals of change. Some of the strategies that can be used for the change process are organization-wide vs.
specific sector, planned vs. unplanned, and incremental vs. transformational. These strategies come with different benefits and complications that will require understanding the extent of change. However, in most instances, for a chance to succeed, it should be planned and systematic, and some phrases that can be included are a clarification of the expectations and change process roles, formulation of the change process, its implementation, and evaluation of the entire change process. Following these phases will ensure the effective and efficient accomplishment of the change process (Cameron, and Green, 2004). The change process brings into consideration resources within an organization to ensure that they fulfill the requirements of change.
It is important for the individuals within the change process to understand that there are different ways to ensure that the organization embrace change since different styles are required for different resources and this is true to human resource. Human resources constitute management (executive) and employees (i. e. secretary and salesperson) this means that the strategy that will be used on the executive should be different from that of employees. If the management accepts the change process, it will be easier to translate it to employees, but the other way round in somehow difficult.
Moreover, the approach and strategies that will be used to encourage change will determine the ability of a human resource to appreciate the change else dissatisfied (Schyns and Meindl, 2006). Change, depending on the underlying requirements of change will determine the success of the process or its failure. Change is inherent in any organization but appropriate means and strategies should be in place to ensure that the entire organization appreciates change and the reasons behind the change process.
In doing so, it is important for the changes to understand and define the appropriate strategy that will be used in the change process that may include models and theories. Some common model of changes is action research, strategic management, plan do check act, Mckinsey 7s model, and Lewin’ s Freeze models (Hussey, 2000). For example, the strategic management model requires an organization to embrace change through strategic planning bringing into consideration a change that is systematic, explicit, and cyclical. These five models come with different rules and approaches that fulfill their respective goals.
Moreover, the approach or model that will be used will be determined by the factors of change. In this case, the factors of change may be either internal or external. The internal factors may include re-organization, structural change, process, and culture of the entire organization. This is the simpler part of change since it can be anticipated and its implementation process may clearly be defined in advance. On the other hand, the external factors are numerous in number and are usually not anticipated.
Some of the external factors that can sanction change are political, economic, and social in nature. Political may be due to legislations, rules, and political stability; economic factors may be because of competition, market share, and economic restriction while social factors may include demographic trend changes. At other times, the internal and external factors may entangle and require the change process to be done hastily. In the case of the external factors, change is not anticipated and the change process may partially be planned and implemented. Formulation and implementation of the change process have resulted in the development of new techniques and tools that help in the accomplishment of the change process.
An example of such a tool is the change matrix. The change matrix presents a means of ensuring that connections between different practices are correlated. It accomplishes its duties through reinforcing and interfering organization process in a graphical manner. This tool provides a means of outlining new systems and approaches that will be used in the transition process and thus the entire process can be decentralized for implementation locally and thus its optimization.
Change matrix has four functions that help in the change process that are outlining change process, highlight interactions, possible transition, and encourages stakeholders' participation, and means and method of change including evaluation. Even though change may be viewed in a positive manner, sometimes change can be negative. For example, change can mean an increase in employee benefits, and at the same time, it can be retrenchment. The fundamentals and requirements of change can determine whether individuals appreciate change or not. Most individuals do not appreciate change because they may lose some benefits that were associated with initial requirements (Goethals and Sorenson, 2006).
Thus, an employee may negatively be affected by the change process and will resist the change process. These changes may result in losing certain benefits or positions and/ or may afflict the internal morale of individuals or personalities. Generally, if the employees have no proper knowledge regarding the change process the will likely feel that it’ s against their freedom and flexibility of accomplishing duties plus their own outcome of the status quo, and thus they will resist change. Question 2 (Management and Leadership) Organizations should be managed effectively and efficiently to ensure that it fulfills its goals and objectives.
Within an organization, many individuals, functions, and processes are involved to accomplish available tasks. This process brings managers and leaders in fulfilling their duties. Management and leaders are different but are related in the way that duties and obligations are accomplished. Leaders are the people who provide direction and guidelines in fulfilling the requirements of the organization while management brings together all leaders into determining the future of the organization.
Thus, leaders implement while management formulates strategies (Burke, 2002). Leadership is an important aspect, and there are different leaders within an organization. To prevent conflicts between the leaders, it is important to lay a structure that gives each a leader the role and extent of their participation within the organization. The division of leadership ensures that intra and inter conflicts are prevented and the leaders can effectively and efficiently accomplish their duties. For example, in an organization, there are the directors and supervisors and both are leaders, but the division of leadership requires that directors played clearly defined roles while the same is true for the supervisors.
This can be understood further if theories of leadership are understood. Individuals and researchers try to link change with management/ leadership. An example of a leader that has discussed extensively change and leadership in an organisation is John Kotter. John Kotter presents eight steps that are fundamental in ensuring successful change. Kotter's eight steps are to develop vision and strategy, create a powerful and guiding coalition, celebrate short-term wins, have a sense of urgency, communicate the change vision, anchor change to corporate structure, and continuous re-invigoration.
On the other hand, Dearlove and Crainer view that management is leadership is two important factors that cannot easily be differentiated and thus are usually entangled. Dearlove and Crainer state that it is important to formulate appropriate strategies and these strategies should carefully be implemented resulting in successful change at the end. The aim of most theories and models is to try to explain the rapidly changing environments of organizations. In any science or human discipline, theories and models try to provide means in which an individual can accomplish different tasks.
In the case of management theories and models, the most common are contingency, systems, and chaos theory (Miner, 2005). Chaos theory view that organizations are entities that cannot be controlled, while contingency view that appropriate measures should be taken depending on situations. In the case of leadership theories, the major common theories are transactional, transformation, and situation theories. Transactional leadership theory contents that status quo should be preserved but transformation leaders encourage changes in a structured manner while situation states that decisions and leadership strategies should concur with factors and conditions that are in place at that time.
Burke, W., 2002. Organisation Change: Theory and Practice. New York Sage Publishers.
Cameron, E., and Green, M. 2004. Making Sense of Change Management: a Complete Guide to Models and Tools. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Goethals, G. and Sorenson, G., 2006. The Quest for a General Theory of Leadership. New York: Edward Elgar Publishers.
Hussey, D., 2000. How to Manage Organisational Change. London: Kogan Page Publishers.
Miner, J. 2005, Organisational Behaviour I, New York: M.E. Sharpe Publishers.
Schyns, B. and Meindl, J., 2006. Implicit Leadership Theories, London: IAP