The paper "Applicability of Maslow’ s Need Theory in Engagement and Motivation of Employees" is a perfect example of management coursework. Motivation is considered as a crucial part in the management of people. It requires a good understanding of why people work, that is, what makes one want or not want to be engaged in the workforce. Motivational theories are very important in the evaluation of what drives people to work especially through explaining the behaviours of human (Antomioni, 1999). Another concept that influences the motivation of employees is the psychological contract.
The psychological contract is also influenced by the perception of the employees on the organisational justice as well as the company’ s HRM ethics. The motivation of employees needs to be maintained especially due to the current rapid changes in the organisations (Rousseau, 1995). Draft (2003) emphasises that the motivation of employee affects the organisation’ s productivity and in turn the company’ s profitability. Thus, the role of the manager is to ensure that there is a channelling of motivation towards the achievement of the goals of the organisation. Motivation theories are classified into two: content theories and process theories.
Mullin (2002) defines content theories like the ones that really motivate the behaviour of an individual, they define the attitude of employees, like needs of the employees and what to do in order to satisfy these needs. These theories include; Maslow’ s theory of hierarchy needs (1943), the two-factor theory of Herzberg (2002), and McCelland’ s theory (1961). Process theories address the way behaviour is initiated and sustained. They include Vroom’ s theory of expectancy (1964) and Adam’ s theory of equity (1965). Maslow’ s hierarchy of need theory has significantly contributed to organisational behaviour and management, in particular, the motivation of employees.
This theory led to the incorporation of the need theory in a current working environment (Mullin, 2002). Maslow (1943) classified the needs of human into five categories which are arranged in the form of hierarchical importance. First one is physiological, then security, belongings, esteem and finally, self-actualisation. He states that employees are usually motivated by these needs but they first need to satisfy the lowest needs (psychological) and later continue satisfying higher-level needs. However, given that the original Maslow’ s need theory was presented back around 50 years ago, there are many theories that came after.
But this theory remains significantly important since other theories investigating the motivation of employees mostly base their argument on Maslow’ s theory. This has become necessary due to the current globalisation trend, more full-time and part-time jobs, labour turnover demands which require the companies to continuously evaluate their strategies of motivation (Wiley 1997). The purpose of this paper is to focus on the application of Maslow’ s need theory in engagement and motivation of employees. One of the challenges in this paper is that secondary data that is already collected other researchers have been heavily relied upon.
The focus on this theory of motivation is because most of the motivational theories are based on a modification of Maslow’ s theory. Thus, analysing the current literature will lead to the identification of gaps which will provide direction on the suggestion of future research.