The paper "International Business: Environment and Operations of LUKOIL" is a perfect example of a case study on business. LUKOIL is the largest oil company in Russia. The company is also the second-biggest owner of proven resources in the globe. The company was found in Moscow, Russia the year 1991. As of 2014, LUKOIL produced 102.65 tons of oil. Currently, LUKOIL accounts for more than 19% of the total production of crude oil in Russia with its profits being USD 192 billion as of 2014. This report is aimed at discussing the trade strategies of LUKOIL as a privatized exporter of crude oil and analyzing the various risks that may be faced by Russia as a key oil-exporting country. Answer 1 It can be identified that the current situation of the oil exports of Russia is that the country is in a competitively advantageous position over foreign counterparts.
Due to the high quantities of crude oil reserves present in the country, the nation has a natural inherent advantage related to having sufficient accumulated oil resources. When observing the oil export system of Russia, It can be identified that a large part of the oil export in the economy is headed by the local countries like Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.
This information helps to establish that Lindner’ s Country Similarity theory can be used to explain the current position of the country as an oil exporter. This theory establishes that the majority of trade carried out between a home country and other countries should be with the nations which are at similar positions of economic performances as compared to the exporting country. Porter’ s diamond of national competitive advantage is another main trade theory that can be used to explain the position of Russia as an oil exporter.
The demand for oil has increased across the world and continues to increase on an accelerated basis. In this scenario, Russia remains in a competitively advantageous position due to the availability of high reserves of oil in the country. Theories of trade that are not relevant for explaining the position of Russia as an oil exporter are the Mercantilism theory which suggests the encouragement of importing and discouragement of exporting practices and the theory of countries which suggests that large countries are self-sufficient in nature which is not true in case of Russia because the economy is largely driven by exports.
The PLC theory of trade is also irrelevant in this case because oil is considered as a natural resource that is more of a necessity than a desire or luxury product. Answer 2 Over the last decade, the oil industry in Russia has experienced major changes. The economy of Russia has experienced significant growth in its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on a year on year basis.
The majority of this exceptional economic growth in the country can be accredited to the most valuable natural resource of the country which is crude oil. The oil industry of Russia accounts for 25% of the total GDP of the nation and 40% of the export values in the country. Political Factors that have affected the growth of the oil industry include government regulations, quotas, and embargos imposed by OPEC countries, trade sanctions, like the sanctions imposed on countries like Iran, etc.
The economic factors that largely affect the global oil markets include the economic uncertainties caused by low economic performances of nations, less disposable incomes and Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), high levels of unemployment, etc. which affect the oil industry and oil exports at both macro and micro levels (Radebaugh and Sullivan, 2014). Answer 3 In spite of the tremendous success of the crude oil industry in Russia, the country is now looking for new strategies to negate the risks associated with the extreme dependence on oil export and the heavy fluctuations of oil prices in the global markets.
Due to this, the major oil companies like LUKOIL are engaging in new international trade management strategies like foreign investment and expansion as ways of reducing the impacts of political uncertainty, fluctuating oil prices, changing export values, and other risks related to the oil industry (Poussenkova, 2010). It can be said that for both LUKOIL and Russia as oil exporters, the creation of a competitive advantage would be the primary key for determining the level of success that Russian oil can achieve in the global oil markets.
The fact that Russia has much higher resources of crude oil than the other oil-producing and exporting nations is definitely a source of competitive advantage for the country but does not guarantee long term success. For succeeding in the international trade markets, Russian oil companies like LUKOIL should display greater efficiency that would help them to create higher competitiveness. Foreseeing the profits and opportunities in importing and exporting activities would be another key strategy to ensure the success of the nation as a viable trader. The use of the comparative theory can uphold oil-exporting advantages.
Since Russia produces mass amounts of crude oil, therefore, it should prevent other countries to invade the market with FDI strategies so as to protect the exporting economy and its natural resources. Answer 4 The relationship between exports and factor mobility is strongly integrated into the case of LUKOIL. The company uses large amounts of financial resources, equipment, and trained human resources. Also, LUKOIL employs high amounts of investment efforts and capital in the production areas which are most capable of making profits. The company experiences high factor mobility in the export systems due to the fact that it exports oil to various geographical locations across the world (Firlej, 2009). Answer 5 The roles assumed by the Russian government and the Costa Rican government for using trade to achieve the national economic goals are distinct in terms of the use of strategies and regulations.
The Costa Rican government has developed acquired skills and talent within the oil industry of the country. In contrast, the Russian government has adopted the strategy of exploiting the global demands of oil by leveraging on the surplus natural oil reserves in the country.
Also, the Costa Rican government has transformed the economy by using high technology manufactured products and underplaying the export of natural resources. On the other hand, Russia has transformed the economy by shifting the control of the industry from state-owned businesses to more competitive and efficient private enterprises. Conclusion To conclude, it can be said that there are many constraints in the ways of performance and success in the global oil industry. As for companies like LUKOIL, the main key to success would be competing in the industry through strategies like efficiency achievement in all parts of the supply chain including extraction, refining as well as distribution of oil.
Also, the country and the oil companies should focus on protecting the natural resources from foreign countries and companies which may try to exploit these resources.
Firlej, K. (2009). Lukoil's Global Energy Reach: is the Russian Oil Giant a Solid Investment? Journal Of Case Research In Business & Economics, Vol. 14(1), pp.11-6.
Poussenkova, N. (2010). The global expansion of Russia’s energy giants. Journal Of International Affairs, Vol. 63(2), pp.103-124.
Radebaugh, D. & Sullivan, D. (2014). International Business: Environment & Operations, 15th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall.