Essays on International Training and Development Coursework

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The paper "International Training and Development" is a great example of management coursework.   World over, discussions about the relative importance of the human resource to the organization have been raging. Perhaps this because of the position it holds in the organizational development and overall performance. It’ s generally accepted by many scholars and researchers that proper utilization of human resources in an organization, can greatly help enhance the company’ s competitive advantage at the market place. In particular, organizational success is as a result of the company’ s capability to work with speed, agility, and capacity to learn as well as employee competence in their areas of work.

However, according to some of the researchers such as Armstrong and Mitchell (2008), Chand and Katou (2007), and Tobin and Pettingell (2008), the way to achieve organizational capabilities is what has remained a big challenge. Many of the researchers are of the view that as long as organizations continue to follow traditional methods of training, especially in the global market, will not help them achieve much in terms of competition and overall performance. The challenge in enhancing organizational capability is also likely to be more complex with the new world economy where technology has come into and that workforce is expected to have special skills that are compatible with the new era of doing business (Sparrow 2012, pp.

2404). Provided such background, ‘ new-born’ human resource as may be regarded, training and development theories and practices have put forward with the aim of offering solutions to the underlying human resource challenges. In brief, this article is interested in providing a critical evaluation of the concept, ‘ international training and development, ’ and further try to establish the existing gaps between different theories and practices in human resources. Definition of terms Training: From a managerial context training is used to refer to the learning experience one undergoes that helps bring about relatively permanent change in the way one perceives and does different activities.

This is particularly important when one wants to create change in the way employees do their work. Training involves a change of skills, knowledge enhancement, change of attitudes, and social behaviors. Further, training from the human resource perspective is used to change what the employees think, know, and the way they work as well as the way they interact among themselves and with their seniors.

According to Gary Dessler (2009), training refers to the process of providing new or existing staff skills that are needed in carrying their functions. On the other hand, Terry Leap and Crino (2001), see training as a process of creating a new environment where employees acquire, learn or develop job-related behaviors, enhance their knowledge and skills as well as attitudes towards their work.


Andy, S. (2007). The emergence of learning and development in Australian enterprise. Journal of training and development, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 1-15.

Armstrong, S. & Mitchell, B. (2008). The Essential HR Handbook: A Quick and Handy Resource for Any Manager or HR Professional. Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, Inc.

Arthur, J. B. & Boyles, T. (2007). Validating the human resource system structure: A levels-based strategic HRM approach. Human Resource Management Review, Vol.17, No. 1, pp. 77- 92.

Boudreau, J. & Ramstad, P. (2007). Beyond HR: The New Science of Human Capital. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.

Chand, M. & Katou, A. ( 2007) The impact of HRM practices on organisational performance in the Indian hotel industry. Employee Relations, 29(6), pp. 576-594.

Chung, C., Bozkurt, O and Sparrow, P. (2012). Managing the duality of IHRM: unraveling the strategy and perceptions of key actors in South Korean MNCs. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 2333-2353.

Godard, J. (2004). A critical assessment of the high-performance paradigm. British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 42, No.2, pp. 340–378.

Fleetwood, S. & Hesketh, A. (2008). Theorising Under-theorisation in Research on the HRM – Performance Link, Personnel Review, Vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 237-319.

HMA Administrator. (2010). Human Resource: Marriott employee training and development program, 08 June, Retrieved 24th April 2012, program

Hodgkinson, G., Sadler-Smith, E., Burke, L., Claxton, G. & Sparrow, P. (2009). Intuiton in organisations: Implications for strategic management. Long Range Planning. Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. pp. 277-297.

Holland, J. (2007). Increasing operating efficiencies. Journal of Human Resources Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.45-76.

Richter, A., Dawson, J. & West, M. (2011). The effectiveness of organizational teams: A meta- analysis. International Journal of Human Resource Management. Vol. 22, No.14, pp. 2749-2769.

Sheehan, M. and Sparrow, P. (2012). Global human resource management and economic change: a multiple level of analysis research agenda. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 2393-2403.

Sparrow, P. (2012). Globalising the international mobility function: the role of emerging markets, flexibility and strategic delivery models. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 2404-2427.

Tobin, D. & Pettingell, M. (2008). The AMA Guide to Management Development. New York, NY: American Management Association.

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