The paper "Strategic Human Resource Management " is a good example of management coursework. Human resource management has evolved in three-phase: Human resource management, strategic human resource management, and international human resource management. Initially, it involved managing groups and individuals using human resource roles such as staffing, retention, training, development, and remuneration. Then strategic management integrated the practices above with the business strategies. International human resource management covers human resource practices for multi-nationals (Lengnick-Hall et al. , 2009). The strategic human resource management has been developed over the last 30 years with origin in the US.
It involves the effective management of human capital to achieve an organisation’ s strategic plan or goals. Ulrich identified four roles of strategic human resource management: The human resource professionals should be strategic partners of the organisation to execute strategy effectively, and the professionals should deliver human resource practices such as staffing and training with expertise. In addition, providing employees with the necessary resources to increase capability and commitment, and be change agents to manage the organisational culture and any developing culture. The human resource managers, therefore, provide client services, manage organisational change, manage strategic activities, and develop human capital (Gardner, Lepak, & Bartol, 2003).
However, the human resource manager needs to understand various issues affecting his profession. This paper will look at these issues in terms of globalisation, technology, staffing, and retention. Globalisation The world has increasingly become a global village with the advent of technology and ease of travel around the globe. The world trade level grew double fold that of global output growth in 2006. Globalisation has changed business economies from manufacturing-based to knowledge-based economies increasing the role of human capital than ever before.
Both consumers and manufacturers have access to free information from the internet for comparison compared to the previous century. This, therefore, necessitates effective business strategies aligned with effective human resource management to remain competitive in the long term. The risk is even higher for multi-national companies. Therefore, other than the traditional human resource practices such as training, recruiting, and performance management, globalisation presents an additional practice in knowledge management. This has to be aligned with the company’ s corporate strategy. In Singapore, the government was forced to adopt a knowledge-based after the Asian financial crisis of 1997.
The country is not resource endowed and to sustain its economy, the human resource managers had to maximise on their human capital. With a workforce of 1:4 foreign-local ratios, the government and firm are invested on developing the workforce’ s capacity that has proved successful in developing Asia’ s most competitive economy according to the 2006-2007 World Economic Forum (Choo, Halim, & Keng-Howe, 2010). In its formative years as an independent state, Israel suffered from the effects of a closed economic state.
It banned imports through high duty and tax to encourage local growth and employment of returning refugees after the Second World War and there was a shortage of foreign currency. Businesses had rigid cultures reliant on local culture. Globalisation has since changed the country’ s businesses. The government has adopted free trade agreements with foreign countries. This has resulted in an influx of foreign companies such as IBM, Motorola, Benettons, and McDonald's. International mergers and acquisitions are also common currently. Increased competition has made the workforce more volatile creating a new challenge to the human resource manager in keeping the workforce satisfied and preventing them from seeking better opportunities elsewhere.
Globalisation has also necessitated the search for new markets abroad as the country is small. This means managing divergent cultures and maintaining the company’ s profitability. In addition, companies are forced to send expatriates abroad. Therefore, the human resource manager has to consider family ties of the expatriate and the effects on the expatriate’ s job performance and the firm’ s goal, and performance (Harpaz & Meshoulam, 2010).