The paper 'Knowledge Management and Culture' is a wonderful example of a Management Annotated Bibliography. Most organization feels that there is a need for knowledge sharing in order for them to be able to compete in the modern world. According to Davenport, et al. (1999-200) who states that scholars and observers from different disciplines as disparate as sociology, economics, and management science agree that a transformation has occurred which made knowledge management the center stage of every organization. Alavi and Leidner(2001) define knowledge as a broad and abstract notion that has defined epistemological debates in western philosophy since the classical Greek era. The bibliography begins with Barrichi’s (2009) article which tries to convince the reader that there is nothing like free knowledge.
The second article by Srinivasan (2004) looks at knowledge in the different perspective of narration and storytelling. The last three articles written by Ajmal et al (2008), Rivera- Vazquez (2009), and Ajmal et al (2009) takes the perspective of cultural aspect in knowledge management. Title and reference of the articleBarichini, F. (2009) “Cultural and social issues for knowledge sharing” journal of knowledge management, Vol.
13 No. 1 pg 98-110Type of articleResearch article- Langenzersdorf, AustriaAim/purpose of the articleThe article aim’s to show that there is no free knowledge. The author argues that knowledge management is used as a business transaction since everyone needs or wants a reward for any information he or she gives regardless of the type of reward he will get. sample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Sample: 150 (10% response rate, the people who participated were the CEOs, top management executive rank managers, and middle-level manager from Taiwan) selected randomly from different positions, departments, and industries Instrument: questionnaires Analysis: qualitative research analysis is used to identify the most important factor.
Cluster analysis was used to perform the semantic interpretation of the answer by matching keywordsFindings1. Qualitative research identified that in the 11 statements seven scored above the average level of six points. The author found a relationship between three statements has to have low variance2. Firms that implement motivation which include personal recognition are able to boost the morale of the employees hence making them have the morale to work harder since in the end there will be personal recognition. 3.
No significant association between cultural knowledge capability and KS. 4. The finding is significant in the sense that in order for a flow of knowledge management there is a need for incentives to be introduced in order to motivate the employees to share and work together as a team. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe aim of this article is to point out that without a personal individual gain in an organization there will always be a barrier to knowledge management.
In order for knowledge to flow freely, organizations should deal with this issue as a business transaction other than the right of the company. Limitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focusThe survey analyses only Central European countries. The limitation would not be there if the survey was carried out in other parts of the world as well since it would have a cultural perspective with diverse culture. Strength/s of the articleThis article offers a strong argument on the basis that everyone expects something in return for any information given by its monetary reward or another type of information as an exchange for their own informationWeakness/es of articleThe survey used talked about trade in knowledge but nothing to do with culture since different cultures traded differently from each other.
The paper should have shown the aspect of culture and what role culture plays or should play in this business transactionTitle and reference of the articleSrinivasan, R. (2004) “knowledge architecture for cultural narratives”, journal of knowledge management Vol. 8 pg. 65-74Type of articleResearch paper- School of design, Harvard universityAim/purpose of the articleThis article tries to introduce the little known way of communication using narratives and stories as a basis for knowledge sharing.
This article tries to prove that the approach of new cultural and community-based domain yields are new and unused territoriessample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Sample size: The author used a community of Somali immigrants in the Boston area which Is approximately 6,000 people Analysis: the analysis used was that of concept mapping technique. This is where the author used a search engine with about five words commonly used to get narratives on the Somali people and their culture. FindingsThe findings also indicate that the introduction of narratives and stories can serve as a basis for knowledge passing from one person to the other.
This also can be used in designing, creating, and managing knowledge architecture in a dynamic context of communities. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe article is significant in the sense that it followed the traditional way of knowledge management where storytelling and narratives were used as a means of communicating to the members of the same community.
Still, it has the possibility of a correlation with the idea that knowledge management is a business transaction since even in the traditional way a story was told as a means for personal gratification or warning of impending danger. The storyteller expected people to react on his narrationLimitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focusThe survey is internet-based and does not cover the thoughts of people who do not have access to the internet. Strength/s of the articleThe study of culture is strongly argued in this paper since it is the first one to deal solely with culture in relation to knowledge management. Weakness/es of articleThe article's weakness stems from the fact that it is internet-based and most people who might be able to provide knowledge on storytelling and narration might not be able to access the internet.
So based on this kind of survey only a few people are involved or are able to absorb the knowledge derived from such a tradition which is universal in many culturesTitle and reference of the articleAjmal, M.M. , and Koskinen, K.
U, (2008) “knowledge transfer in project-based organizations: organizational culture perspective, project management journal, Vol. 39, No. 1, pg 7-15Type of articleResearch article- University of Vaasa and Tampere university of technology, FinlandAim/purpose of the articleThe article aims to investigate how knowledge is created and transferred in a project-based organization settings using cultural perspectivessample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]The article gives suggestion on knowledge acquired through the project-based organization but it does not analyze instead it gives suggestions on a question to be answered in order for a project-based organization to be successful in implementationsFindingsThe major finding of this paper is the understanding of the culture in the organization and how to either improve on them or route them out.
The introduction of new culture depends mostly on the age of the organization that is if it is new then it is easy to introduce new culture but if it is an old company then it is very hard to change their culture into anything new. Significance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe article illustrates the importance of the four core cultures which are the control core culture which is concerned with ensuring certainty predictability, safety, and accuracy among other knowledge management skills in an organization.
the second core is competence core culture which is concerned with the achievements of the team. The third is collaboration core culture which is concerned with the team playing capability of the team and the last one is cultivation core culture which is concerned with the meaningful self-actualization of the members.
This core structure is important for knowledge flow in the organizationLimitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focusThe article does not give a set guideline but generalizes the whole issue. Strength/s of the articleIt provides a generalization of the guidelines which are to be followed in order for a project-based organization to succeed in its knowledge management endeavorsWeakness/es of articleThere is no survey to prove their theories they just state facts. Title and reference of the articleRivera-Vazquez J. C et. Al. (2009) overcoming cultural barriers for innovation and knowledge sharing, journal of knowledge management, Vol. 13 No5.
Pg. 257-270Type of articleResearch article- Business and entrepreneurship, Universidad del Turabo. Gurabo, Puerto RicoAim/purpose of the articleThe main purpose of this research is to show how cultural barriers might affect the inflow of communication in every level of an organization. And also the ability of an organization to go beyond culture and work together as a communitysample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]Sample: The research was done in four companies in Puerto Rico municipality of Caguas and the companies involved were a subsidiary of international water system company, municipality of Caguas, a clothing company and a party rental company Method: questionnaires Analysis: Qualitative interview was used to explore how the enterprises promoted the efficiency of knowledge production among the employeesFindings1.
The results were that the organizations showed the low power distance capability of managers to take into account the views of their employees2. the organizations were collective and realized that teamwork was important in the management of knowledge and its flow in an organization and showed that the employees were more cooperative if the management used the two types of capabilities which is low power distance and collective capabilitiesSignificance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe significance is that in order for any organization to work there is need for reduction of the communication gaps between management and the employees and also experience should be taken into consideration regardless of the culture of the person or their position in the companyLimitations of the article, e.g.
location, industry, focusThe survey was done in only four companies in Puerto Rico and the data was not enough to be presented as representing the country of Puerto Rico.
This makes the data collected and the analysis less significant to knowledge managementStrength/s of the articleThe strength of the article is that they used international based companies in their survey which gave it credibility but not enough to be taken as the national analysis of knowledge management with regards to cultural barriersWeakness/es of articleThe article is not accurate enough to be taken as a significant analysis. Title and reference of the articleAjmal M.
M. et al, (2009) cultural impact on knowledge management and learning in project-based firms, the journal of information and knowledge management systemsType of articleResearch-based- Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, FinlandAim/purpose of the articleThe aim of this article is to show the use of the diversity of culture in organizations as a means for the introduction of the flexibility of knowledge management in project-based firmssample, location, method of data collection and analysis[methodology]the paper used a deep conceptual study analysis which was used to go deeper into the root theories of the knowledge management. FindingsCulture plays a significant role in the knowledge management capacity of any organization.
It also came to the conclusion that the senior management should be involved morally and also id need be budgetary in order for knowledge management to flow in an organizationSignificance of the article in relation to other articles, your topic OR prior researchThe significant finding is that knowledge management has got little to do with technology and a lot to do with activities of the individuals in the project-based firmLimitations of the article, e.g. location, industry, focusIt offers theories without tangible evidence as to how vulture affects the knowledge managementStrength/s of the articleThe articles serve as a reference guide to be followed in conceptual analysis. Weakness/es of articleThe generalization of theories. This bibliography has shown that in every organization there is a need for knowledge management and that In order for an organization to succeed the organization has to recognize the cultural aspect of the knowledge.
Everybody in the organization should have the freedom to give out their views regardless of status in the company. The organization also needs to have a model for the knowledge flow in the company this should be indifferent levels that is: “the individual, the small group, the organization and inter-organizational domain” Hedlund (2007). As a result, this bibliography has shown the importance of knowledge management in the organization and the need for implementation of open channels for the knowledge to flow from one person to the other
Barichini, F. (2009) “Cultural and social issues for knowledge sharing” journal of knowledge management, Vol. 13 No.1 pg 98-110
Srinivasan, R. (2004) “knowledge architecture for cultural narratives”, journal of knowledge management Vol. 8 pg. 65-74
Ajmal, M.M. and Koskinen, K. U, (2008) “knowledge transfer in project based organizations: organizational culture perspective, project management journal, Vol. 39, No.1, pg 7-15
Rivera-Vazquez J. C et. Al. (2009) overcoming cultural barriers for innovation and knowledge sharing, journal of knowledge management, Vol.13 No5. Pg.257-270
Ajmal M. M. et al,(2009) cultural impact on knowledge management and learning in project based firms, the journal of information and knowledge management systems
Hedlund, G. (2007), a model of knowledge management and the N-form Corporation, the strategic management journal, vol. 15, issue S2 pg. 73-94
Davenport et al, (1999), successful knowledge management projects, the knowledge management year book 1999-2000, Buttersworth- Heinemann
Alavi and Leidner (2001) Review: knowledge management and knowledge management systems: conceptual foundations and research issues, Vol. 25 No. 1 pg> 107-136