The paper 'Individual and Group Values' is a good example of a Management Case Study. Organizational behavior is regarded as the study of the way people interact within groups particularly in organisational settings; it is the interface between the organisation and human behaviour, as well as the organization itself. Organizational behavior is a study that is focused on improving or creating more efficient business organisations (Chance, 2013). Human behavior is largely determined by the values that he or she holds. Values are those long-lasting, stable, and evaluative beliefs that are responsible for guiding human preferences, decisions, and actions.
For instance, they are the ones that help human beings define what is right or wrong and differentiate between good and bad. Values are also regarded as the source of human attitudes, motivations, and perceptions. It has been established that values are mainly driven from ones mindset, family, religious beliefs, peers and friends, education, life experiences, and above all, individual’ s socialization and conditioning. This paper in this section discusses the differences in individual and group values and how they affect individual and organizational behavior.
Furthermore, the section will give reasons as to why knowledge about values can be applied in organizations. Values Values can be defined as long-lasting, evaluative, and stable beliefs that guide human preferences, actions, and decisions. It is a broad preference that determines the appropriate course action or outcomes (Golembiewski, 2001). Values also reflect one's sense of right and wrong or what ought to be. For example, people should be treated with dignity, and equal rights for all, are some basic values that are held by human beings. Types of values and how they influence individual and organizational behavior There are different types of values including: Personal values These are values held within an individual and they exist in relation to cultural values which might either be in agreement with or divergent from the societal prevailing norms (French, 2011).
In a cultural setting, there exists a social system that shares a set of standard values; it is through these values that permit personal or societal social expectations together with the collective understanding of the good, constructive, and the beautiful (Jones, 2008). It has been established that without normative personal values, the cultural references from which individual values are measure would not be there thus cultural identity would disintegrate (Sankar, 2004). From the above explanation, it is important to note that personal values are ethics, guiding principles, virtues, ideals, and/or personal moral compass which directs his/her way of life (Forshaw et al. , 2010).
Personal values are important to an individual as they provide inner happiness, increase one's confidence, empowers him/her to make better decisions, it helps in creating and fulfilling relationships, helps one to have a clearer direction, and more importantly gives one a greater personal awareness (Taylor & Hansen, 2005).
Accordingly, personal values are of great significance to an organization as they contribute to the shared meaning and direct people’ s behavior in order to achieve the set organizational goals. Cultural values Each culture emphasizes values with which its members should broadly share; they are the values that are shared by a society. Within a society, values can be expressed by noting how people receive respect or honor. For example, great performers are greatly honored as compared to the low performers.
Cultural values are related to the norms held by that culture; however, they are more diverse as compared to norms. Norms within a society are responsible for providing specific rules for certain behavior in specific situations; values on the other hand identify what should be judged as good or evil (Kitchin, 2010). In the same line of discussion, norms are standards, rules, patterns, and directions of expected behavior while values are normally abstract concepts of what is worthwhile and important. For example, flying a flag on a national holiday is a norm that is held by all states across the globe; however, it reflects patriotism value (Nelson & Quick, 2007).
Accordingly, wearing dark clothes and being solemn during a funeral is normative behavior but also represents the value of respect. Members of the society are fond of taking part in culture despite the fact that their personal values may not agree with some of the normative values held in that culture.
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