Essays on Effective Application of Goal-Setting Theory Coursework

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The paper "Effective Application of Goal-Setting Theory" is a great example of management coursework.   Due to globalization and increased competition in the business environment, organizations have come up with strategies to enhance their competitive advantage and sustainable wealth creation through effective goal setting strategies. Consequently, researchers have focused on formulating theories and concepts to describe how goal setting affects individual employees and the organizations they work for. As such, there have been conflicting perspectives on goal setting with particular emphasis on performance and achievement of organizational goals and objectives. On the other hand, supervisors and company managers are focused on enhancing employee productivity by developing strategies for employee motivation and aligning company objectives to personal goals.

In this regard, goal setting has been an integral part of overall business strategies and human resource management in particular. Experts have also focused on formulating a hypothesis and providing empirical evidence on the application of goal setting in the achievement of organizational goals. Much work has also been done in describing the role of goal setting as a strategy for enhancing performance through employee motivation.

The critics of the goal-setting strategy have made their suggestions based on contradicting perspectives like the expectations and social cognitive theories which have been applied successfully in social psychology to describe human behavior. This paper critically examines the theory of goal setting and employee motivation. In addition, the paper reviews theories and concepts that provide conflicting perspectives on goal setting and employee motivation strategies. Organizational Goal setting At the organizational level, goal setting refers to the establishment of corporate goals and objectives and matching these goals to employee capability and personal goals.

However, the concept of goal setting elicits conflicting perspectives from researchers and managers. While some managers recognize the need for balancing organizational needs to employee development, others are more focused on achieving organizational objectives in total disregard for employee welfare. Despite these conflicting managerial practices on goal setting, there is an apparent consensus that effective goal setting must focus on specificity, time, achievability, and quantification. More importantly, goal setting has a profound application not only in achieving organizational values and missions but also in personal development. Experts agree that goal setting strategies must strike a balance between organizational objectives and employee capacity and development.

This balance must emphasize on the individual needs and behavior of the employees as a major resource in organizational development and sustainable creation of wealth. The theory of goal setting There have been conflicting perspectives on the theory of goal setting as one of the most effective strategies for enhancing organizational performance and profitability while developing the employee. The proponents of the goal-setting theory argue that employees are able to identify with organizational values, mission and objectives at a personal level.

Similarly, employees are able to work towards a clearly defined goal which enhances commitment, involvement and responsibility. On the other hand, goal setting strategies provides an appropriate framework for the implementation of motivational programs (Vancouver, 2000). Organizations use goal setting strategies to implement effective reward programs that reflect employee capability and personality. On the other hand, the critics of goal setting argue that this strategy undermines implicit learning by focusing on goals and objectives at the expense of personal growth. However, there appears to be a convergence of perspectives that goal setting gives employees a sense of purpose and responsibility that enhances overall performance.

The relationship between goal setting and performance has been explained as a complex mechanism. This mechanism activates cognitive skills and abilities that enhance employee performance. In addition, the mechanism reinforces persistence and energizes the employees as they attempt to achieve challenging tasks. Moreover, goal setting saves energy and time as the individual employees are aware of what is required of them. The proponents of goals setting argue that this strategy must incorporate some basic characteristics and principles.

References

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Judge, T. & Bono, E. 2000). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits – self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability – with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86 pp.80 - 92. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from www.ufstudies.net/.../Judge%20and%20Bono%20CSE%20meta%20JAP%20published.pd..

Kashdan, T. 2004. Curiosity. Character Strengths and Virtues. C. Peterson and M. Seligman. Washington and New York, American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press: 125-141. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from http://www.beswick.info/psychres/management.html.

Martocchio, J. 1994. Effects of conceptions of ability on anxiety, self-efficacy, and learning in training, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 79 pp.819 - 825.

Vancouver, B. 2000. Self-regulation in organizational settings: A tale of two paradigms, in M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich (Eds),Academic Press, San Diego, CA, US, pp.303 - 341.

VandeWalle, W. & Slocum, C. 2001. The role of goal orientation following performance feedback, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86 pp.630 - 640.

Bibliography

Armstrong, M. 2006. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. London: Kogan Page.

Legge, K. 2004. Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mulcaster, W. 2009. Three Strategic Frameworks, Business Strategy Series, Vol 10, No1, pp 68 – 75. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from www.finance.reachinformation.com/strategic_management.aspx

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