Essays on Individual Negotiation Reflective Journal Assignment

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing

The paper "Individual Negotiation Reflective Journal" is a perfect example of a management assignment. According to Hofstede (1991), cultures that have low power distance are typified by role equality and in these cultures' decentralization is popular. Contrary, countries having high power distance do have attributes with existential inequality between lower-downs and higher-ups while centralisation is widely held. In the first simulated negotiation situation, the Australian car dealer was our group role while the Japanese international student had a counter group role. In this situation, my role was as a Mechanic. We sought to sell a 2014 Holden commodore AT sedan (SV6) (MY14) Red car that had no accident, free for scratches and had a perfect looking.

The Japanese student was offered a one-year factory warranty, one-year dealership warranty, and 5 seat cushions. The base price that we offered was $20,000, there were three offerings (1st price was $30,000, the 2nd price was $24,000 and the final deal was $21,000). During the negotiation process, I realized that a meeting turns out to be a cross-cultural encounter when the involved parties are from different cultural backgrounds.

In the first simulated situation, both parties (the Australian car dealer and the Japanese Student) had a conflicting way of understanding the processes of negotiation given that their values systems, norms, and attitudes can differ. I noted that negotiation with a person from one’ s own culture, making realistic expectations concerning the other party anchored on one’ s individual experience normally makes communication successful. Certainly, this is limited if one considers, for instance, different regional variations, gender, socio-economic status, and age. Still, such a situation becomes more multifaceted when the negotiation is between individuals between the two cultures.

Normally, miscommunication and misunderstanding happen during cross-cultural negotiation, although communication language is a lingua franca, like English.  


Adair, W. L., Okumura, T., & Brett, J. M. (2001). Negotiation Behavior When Cultures Collide: The United States and Japan. 2001, 86(3), 371-385.

Alavoine, C. (2014). Ethics in Negotiations: The. Paris: IPAG Business School.

Galinsky, A., Maddux, W., Gilin, D., & White, J. (2008). Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent: the differential effects of perspective taking and empathy in negotiations. Psychological Science, 19(4), 378-384.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill.

Ismail, J., Azariadis, M., & Jusoff, K. (2009). An Overview of the Cross-Cultural Business Negotiation between Malaysia and Australia. Canadian Social Science, 5(4), 129-142.

Murtoaro, J., & Kujala, J. (2007). Project negotiation analysis. International Journal of Project Management, 1(1), 1-12.

Oetzel, J. G., & Ting-Toomey, S. (2003). Face Concerns in Interpersonal Conflict A Cross-Cultural Empirical Test of the Face Negotiation Theory. Communication Research, 30(5), 599-624.

Yousefi, S., Hipel, K. W., & Hegazy, T. (2010). Attitude-Based Negotiation Methodology for the Management of Construction Disputes. Journal of Management in Engineering , 26, 114-122.

Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
Contact Us