Reputation in Jeopardy – Gallos’ Reframing Complexity Theory Reputation in Jeopardy – Gallos’ Reframing Complexity Theory Overview of Gallos’ Reframing Complexity Theory According to Gallos’ Reframing Complexity Theory, cited by Bolman and Deal (2008) and Bolman and Gallos (2011), organizations are complex structures and it is important for key personnel in the organizations to identify root causes of the problems so that right course of action can be taken. For instance, if two employees are having a verbal battle, then it can be either because of personal conflicts or favors given to an employee over other which is a symbolic problem; hence, Organizational Development (OD) practitioners need to broaden their lens to identify the real problems being faced by employees. Gallos has identified four frames for organizational diagnosis which are broadly classified as structural, political, symbolic and human resource.
Organizations are operating at these four levels simultaneously all time and they require special attention for solving problems of each area. Every organization mandates presence of strong architecture to support key organizational goals along with appropriately skilled and qualified workforce so that goals can be achieved.
Likewise, it has to make sure that organizational culture is supportive enough to motivate employees and enhance their productivity and efficiency level and any differences that create conflict or disagreement have to be resolved as well. Hence, four frame approaches helps in analyzing organizations from every aspect so that its operations are conducted in a conducive and encouraging environment. Benefit for OD professional for using four frame approach All problems identified need to be placed in respective frame so that OD practitioner can implement the right intervention tool such as team working, mentoring, coaching, facilitating, restructuring, re-engineering processes and etc.
OD professionals will be able to do proper analysis and develop right course of actions that will work in respective situations. Every OD professional has to ensure that organizations are analyzed perfectly from every angle and problems are resolved from basics so that they can function smoothly and the work environment is appropriate for employees and management. Structural Frame Home Savings of America believes in having strict rules and regulations so that employees are forced to abide by them but it has created hatred among employees as management did not take into account employees’ advice in takeover of their competitor.
Teamwork was missing in the organization as each department was working on its own projects; Sarah did not co-operate in providing Lydia tapes and Lydia did not take out time to collect them from event department and it showed that each one of them is working within its set boundaries. Open door policy is not being applied properly as supervisors aren’t giving space to their subordinates to discuss issues that they are facing such as Amber’s reputation was being affected in front of Lydia as she was not allowed by her supervisor to give her the tapes and she was being viewed as irresponsible and a selfish person. Human Resource Frame There is authority decision making culture in organization as compared to participative one which is being claimed by organization’s policies and procedures.
For instance, top management decided to overtake Great Western and finally was having a merger with Washington Mutual without taking consent of employees. Likewise, Sarah made decision on her own not to allow Amber to take tapes to Lydia.
Since relationships are being affected, Amber’s appraisal will be impacted as Sarah is the concerned person who does annual evaluation of her department’s employees. Although employees are allowed to take advantage of autonomy but that is not evident in Sarah’s authoritative behavior. Political Frame Influence and power is enjoyed by supervisors who have the prestige of imposing their decisions on subordinates and forcing them to follow their orders rather than taking right decisions such as Amber being forced not to behave co-operatively with Lydia. There is conflict between Amber and Lydia because Lydia is unaware of the actual reason for not receiving co-operation from Amber; she needs to be told that the main problem is with Sarah who is favoring her individual needs. Symbolic Frame Values of Sarah are totally different from that held by Amber as she believe to be co-operative with Lydia; Sarah forced Amber not to give tapes to Lydia which showed that Sarah was going against company’s values of creating interdependency amongst departments.
Likewise, culture is believed to be dominated by favoritism, authoritative and conflictive as there is less communication among departments.
Attitudes of key stakeholders and management are violating the core values of the organization and their W. E.C. A.R. E. slogan is found to be ineffective one as it is not compatible with changes that are happening in the organization. Course of Action Required Some information that will need to be gathered to develop effective intervention plan is related to norms present in the organization, gap between perception of management and employees about work environment and culture and resources availability for implementing changes in organization. From information already present, some suggestive actions are OD practitioner will have to first redefine the organization’s core values by holding meeting with key stakeholders which is top management team and then take views of employees so that their opinions can be taken into account as well; supervisors have to be given training so that they can provide adequate support to their subordinates and support participative culture within the organization; there should be shared vision and values so that everyone in the organization can make sense and work towards common goals and attitudes can be changed only by first making people understand the need of bringing those changes and how they will help the organization in achieving their objectives and goals.
References Bolman, L.G. , & Deal, T.E. (2008). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership (4e). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bolman, L.G. , & Gallos, J.V. (2011). Reframing Academic Leadership (1e). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.