THE BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENT ELECTRONIC PURCHASING WITHIN AN ORGANISATION“Researchers who study human behavior must be open to all methods, avenues, and possibilities to fully understand the question(s) at hand”Spiegelberg (1965)Research MethodologyQuantitative methodology is routinely depicted as an approach to tile conduct of social research which applies a natural science, and in particular a positivist, approach to social phenomena. The paraphernalia of positivism are characterized typically in tile methodological literature as exhibiting a preoccupation with operational definitions, objectivity, replicability, causality, and the like. " The social survey is typically seen as the preferred instrument of research within this tradition because it can apparently be readily adapted to such concerns.
Through questionnaire items concepts can be operationalized; objectivity is maintained by the distance between observer and observed along with tile possibility of external checks upon one's questionnaire; replication can be critical out but employing the same research instrument in another context; and the problem of causality has been cased b) die emergence of path analysis and related regression techniques to which surveys are well suited. Research of' this kind is frequent described as being positivist or empiricist.
In attributing to it labels of this kind act essentially epistemological point is being made, namely that research of this genere is underpinned by a distinctive theory of what should pass as warrantable knowledge. Surveys are seen its instruments for tile elucidation of research which makes such epistemological assumptions, though experimental designs and secondary analyses of pre-collected data are also often recognized as exhibiting the same underlying philosophical premises (Bryman, 1984). Qualitative methodology differs in a number of ways. The sine qua non is a commitment to seeing tile social world from the point of view of the action, a theme which is rarely omitted from methodological writings within this tradition.
Clear statements of this emphasis can be discerned in a broad range of writings. " Because of the commitment to see through the eyes of one's subjects close involvement is advocated. There is a simultaneous expression of preference for a contextual understanding so that behavior is to be understood in the context of meaning systems employed by a particular group or society. " Qualitative research is deemed to be much more fluid and flexible than quantitative research in that it emphasizes discovering novel or unanticipated findings and the possibility of altering research plans in response to such serendipitous occurrences (Bryman, 1984).
This section provides discussions on selection of research strategy from two main research methods, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. This study intends to employ both quantitative and qualitative methods. According to Bryman (2004, p. 19), a research strategy of quantitative and qualitative can be formulated and selected based on three basic fundamental differences: (1) principal orientation to the role of theory in relation to research, (2) epistemological orientation, and (3) ontological orientation.
The quantitative research can be construed as a research strategy that emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data and that: entails a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research, in which the accent is placed on the testing of theories; has incorporated the practices and norms of the natural scientific model and of positivism in particular; andembodies a view of social reality as an external, objective reality.