The paper "Issue of Climate Change and Aviation" is a great example of a Business Case Study. The challenge of linking aviation with climate change has been contentious but straightforward. As a number of people traveling increases, the use of jet fuel for aviation also escalates. Though there have been conflicting reports and data, International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) posits that the aviation industry currently makes a contribution of about 3.6 percent of the total radiative forcing (which is a measure of the change in climate) by human activities (Daniel and Elliot, 2012).
In addition to this, Federal Climate Policy and Competitiveness Concerns (2007) reports that the aviation industry is responsible for close to 5 percent of climate change orchestrated by man. It is for these reasons that there was an agreement made by parties allied to Kyoto Protocol that greenhouse gas from different countries should be reduced and this was to be done through International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). Formed as a result of the Chicago Convection of 1944, ICAO has been holding a number of assemblies with a view to mitigating climatic changes brought about by aviation technologies.
For instance, in 2001, ICAO reaffirmed its position maintaining its stand on fuel taxes---a show of interest in mitigating the rate of gas emission to the environment (Scott, 2003). It was during the same year that it rejected the proposal for the application of closed emission trading schemes for aviation. A breakthrough came in 2007 when ICAO formed ICAO Group that was supposed to act on International Aviation and Climate Change (GIACC). Then came the 38th Assembly of the International Civil Aviation Organisation convened in Montreal in October 2013.
This Assembly unanimously agreed to adopt resolution A38-18 which was an integrated statement of continuing ICAO policies and practices regarding climate change and environmental protection. As a matter of fact, Tony Tyler, CEO, and director-general of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) argued that it was indeed a great day for aviation that solution to climate change had been found. However, strategic positions of stakeholders are still hard to predict; judging by previous fruitless efforts by ICAO to implement agendas agreed upon.
Based on this, this essay will critically review issues discussed during the ICAO 38th Assembly with a view of ascertaining their feasibility vis-à -vis views from other stakeholders and previous implementation records. Also considered will be the best course of action for the situation. A review of the strategic position of the stakeholders Preamble One thing unanimously agreed upon by stakeholders is the commitment shown by ICAO during its 38th Assembly. Organizations such as the California Energy Commission (CEC) have noted that bringing the Member States together to come up with a comprehensive global policy regarding greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation has been lauded.
In an attempt to provide a solution to climate change and international aviation, the Assembly was concerned with the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, operational improvements, a way to push forward all elements of a basket of control measures such as market-based measures, aircraft technology, and sustainable alternative fuels. These are also areas stakeholders are showing mixed reactions on particularly basing on previous failures to implement strategies set.
Bartels, L. supra (2012). Part B of Annex IV of Directive 2008/101/EC (19 November 2008), amending Directive 2008/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowing trading within the Community.
Council on Foreign Relations (2008). Confronting Climate Change: A Strategy for U.S. Foreign Policy, Independent Task Force Report No. 61 p. 15.
Daniel, B. and Elliot, D. (2012). Towards an Integrated Multi-Track Framework. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Daniel, B (2007), International Sectoral Agreements in a Post-2012 Climate Framework. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
European Aeronautics Vision for 2020 published by Office for Official Publications for the European Community ISBN 92-894-0559-7.
Federal Climate Policy and Competitiveness Concerns (2007): The Limits and Options of International Trade Law. NI WP 07-02. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. April 2007. www.nicholas.duke.edu/institute/internationaltradelaw.pdf
Guus, J. and Velders, S. (2013). The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate, Proc. National Academy Sciences 104 (2007, p. 4814); Donald Kaniaru, ed., The Montreal Protocol: Celebrating 20 Years of Environmental Progress—Ozone Layer and Climate Protection.
ICAO, Working Paper, Subject No. 50 (2011): Question relating to the environment. Market-Based Measures (MBMs), C-WP/13861, A-4 – A-8.
ICAO Environmental Report 2013, Chapter 1, Aviation’s Contribution to Climate Change, 44
J. Keane, “The aviation industry, the EU’ Emission Trading Scheme and Vulnerable Economies: development-friendly networks”, Overseas Development Institute, Project Briefing no.76.
International Air Transport Association (IATA) 2009, Fact Sheet: Industry Statistics, May 2009. http://www.iata.org/NR/rdonlyres/8BDAFB17-EED8-45D3-92E2-590CD87A3144/0/FactSheetIndustryFactsMAY2009econmarkup.pdf
Joint Declaration of the Moscow meeting on inclusion of international civil aviation in the Eu- ETS,” Russian Aviation, 22 February 2013, http://www.ruaviation.com/docs/1/2012/2/22/50/
Jonathan, P. and Fernando, T. (2013). A Long-Term Target: Framing the Climate Effort,” in Beyond Kyoto: Advancing the International Effort Against Climate Change. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Milde, M. (1998). Problems of Safety Oversight: Enforcement of ICAO Standards, in The Use of Air and Outer Space: Cooperation and Competition, edited by Chia-Jui Cheng, (Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1998).
Nigel, P. (2008). Paving the Way for U.S. Climate Leadership: The Case for Executive Agreements and Climate Protection Authority, RFF Discussion Paper 08-09.
Pacala, S. and Socolow, R., (2012). Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies,Science, vol. 305.
Scott, B. (2003). Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making. Oxford Univ. Press.
Thomas, C. and Schelling, P. (2004). What Makes Greenhouse Sense? Time to Rethink the Kyoto Protocol. Foreign Affairs (Nov./Dec. 1997) (proposing climate ―Marshall Plan).