The paper “ Emotional and Social Intelligence - Relevance to Leadership” is a good example of the literature review on management. Leadership involves influence. The best way to gain influence is to comprehend what goes on people’ s minds when you interact with them and possible changes that can be made so as to make interaction possible for all the parties involved. In order to improve organizational effectiveness, many scholars are beginning to emphasize the importance of a manager’ s emotional and social intelligence (Offermann et al. , 2004; Higgs & Aitken, 2003; Harms & Crede, 2010; Douglas et al. , 2004).
What are emotional intelligence and social intelligence and how are they relevant for effective leadership? To answer this question, there is a need to define emotional and social intelligence, qualities of a good leader, and effective leadership. Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence is a combination of skills that enable an individual to manage his or her emotions, to gauge other’ s emotions, and influence decisions (Harms & Crede, 2010). Goleman 1998 as cited in Harms & Crede (2010) defines emotional intelligence using a model of five dimensions as follows: Self-awareness: this is the ability to understand personal emotions, strengths and weaknesses, and the ability to assess oneself. Self-management: this is the ability to control personal emotions, maintain trustworthiness, be responsible over one’ s own actions, deal with changes, and be accommodative to innovation. Motivation: this is an emotional drive that facilitates the achievement of goals and objectives.
It is made up of the achievement drive, commitment, optimism, and initiative. Empathy: this refers to the ability of an individual to place him or herself in the shoes of others. By doing so, one will be able to understand others' feelings, needs, concerns, and perspectives. Social skills: these include the ability to stimulate desirable responses in others by use of persuasion (influence), psyching and guiding individuals and crowds (leadership), listening and use of convincing signals (communication), maintaining good relationships (building bonds) and working towards a common goal (cooperation and collaboration).
Abelman, R. & Dalessandro, A. (2009). The institutional vision of historically black colleges and universities. Journal of Black Studies, 40(2), 105-134.
Ashkanasy, N., Hartel, C. and Daus, C. (2002). Diversity and Emotion: the new frontiers in organizational behavior research. Journal of management, 28(3), 307-338.
Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18 (8), 788-813.
Douglas, C., Frink, D., & Ferris, G. (2004). Emotional intelligence as a moderator of the relationship between conscientiousness and performance. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10 (3), 2-13.
Ferris, G., Perrewe, P. and Caesar, D. (2002). Social effectiveness in organizations: construct validity and directions. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 9, 49-63.
George, J. (2000). Emotions and Leadership: the role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations 53(8), 1027-1055.
Harms, P. & Crede, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence, transformational and translational leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 17, 5-17.
Higgs, M., & Aitken, P. (2003). An exploration of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership potential. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18 (8), 814-823.
Offermann, L., Bailey, J. R., Vasilopoulos, N. L., Seal, C. & Sass, M. (2004). EQ versus IQ: the relative contribution of emotional intelligence and cognitive ability to individual and team performance. Human Performance, 17 (2), 219-243.
Walter, F. & Heike, B. (2009).An effective events model of charismatic leadership behavior: a review, theoretical integration and research agenda. Journal of Management 35(6), 1428-1452.